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  • Structure
  • We are investigating the interactions that (a) dictate the folding of a polypeptide chain in water into the three-dimensional structure of a native protein and (b) determine the reactivity of such a protein molecule (e.g., as an enzyme) with other small and large molecules. (cornell.edu)
  • structural
  • The technique is shown to have some advantages over differential scanning calorimetry for the study of structural change, and can also be used to measure the affinity of carbohydrate binding proteins, such as Lectin, with monosaccharides. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Are you looking for a way to identify structural hotspots within your potential biotherapeutic protein? (bruker.com)
  • Clemmer's work on gas-phase separation methods for ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and their application to the structural analysis of intact proteins is considered a "particularly important milestone" in the application of IM-MS to the examination of biomolecular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of structural inheritance include the propagation of prions, the infectious proteins of diseases such as scrapie (in sheep and goats), bovine spongiform encephalopathy ('mad cow disease') and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (although the protein-only hypothesis of prion transmission has been considered contentious until recently). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • After two German chemists, Emil Fischer and Franz Hofmeister, independently stated in 1902 that proteins are essentially polypeptides consisting of many amino acids , an attempt was made to classify proteins according to their chemical and physical properties, because the biological function of proteins had not yet been established. (britannica.com)
  • The problem becomes even more challenging due to the fact that a typical protein can contain several hundreds of amino acids or several thousands of atoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A protein is a linear chain of amino acids that folds into a unique functional structure, called its native state. (springer.com)
  • From these frequencies a set of probability parameters were derived for the appearance of each amino acid in each secondary structure type, and these parameters are used to predict the probability that a given sequence of amino acids would form a helix, a beta strand, or a turn in a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • by contrast, the large aromatic residues (tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine) and Cβ-branched amino acids (isoleucine, valine, and threonine) prefer to adopt β-strand conformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unmodified protein has 358 amino acids, a predicted molecular weight of 40kDa, a charge of -11, and an isoelectric point of 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human alpha-synuclein protein is made of 140 amino acids and is encoded by the SNCA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority form of the protein, and the one most investigated, is the full-length protein of 140 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Proteins, when forming an interfacial film, are present as a monomolecular layer-i.e., a layer one molecule in height. (britannica.com)
  • The application of lateral pressure on a protein film causes it to increase in thickness and finally to form a layer with a height corresponding to the diameter of the native protein molecule. (britannica.com)
  • Experimental techniques are able to estimate distances between pairs of atoms of a given molecule, and the problem becomes the one of identifying the three-dimensional conformation of the molecule, i.e. the positions of all its atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • In a pioneering study by McLafferty and coworkers, gas-phase HDX was used to provide some of the first experimental evidence for stable coexisting protein gas-phase conformations 15 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This configuration is equivalent to a stable, globally optimized potential energy state of the system or, in other words, the final conformation of the protein. (asme.org)
  • Recent emergence of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistant human influenza A(H1N1) H274Y has emphasized the need for suitable expression systems to obtain large quantities of highly pure and stable, recombinant neuraminidase through two separate artificial tetramerization domains that facilitate the formation of catalytically active neuraminidase homotetramers from yeast and Staphylothermus marinus, which allow for secretion of FLAG-tagged proteins and further purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • 44 prolines were found along the protein, making up 12.3% of the total amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cross-program consensus predicted that UPF0575 protein C19orf67 forms four alpha helices and two beta sheets in the following locations in the amino acid sequence: Acetylation is likely to occur at the N-terminus while the C-terminus is unlikely to be modified. (wikipedia.org)
  • predict
  • In this paper, we have used PROTOFOLD to predict the final conformation of a small peptide chain segment, an alpha helix, and the Triponin protein chains from a denatured configuration. (asme.org)
  • However, various GPCRs differ sufficiently in the tilts of the TMHs that this method need not predict the optimum conformation starting from any other template. (pnas.org)
  • Immune
  • Our results demonstrate that the conformation of antigens in VLPs is of critical importance for optimal stimulation of protective as well as durable immune responses. (umassmed.edu)
  • scrapie
  • The protein can exist in multiple isoforms, the normal PrPC, and as Protease resistant PrPRes like the disease-causing PrPSc(scrapie) and an isoform located in mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Understanding the function of such proteins requires knowledge of the ensemble of low-energy configurations that might play a role in this pleiotropic functionality. (pnas.org)
  • Where it is expressed, the protein is predicted to be localized in the nucleus to carry out a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highly conserved and slowly evolving DUFF3314 region is predicted to form numerous alpha helices and may be vital to the function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the function is not yet well understood, conservation among numerous taxa indicate that it may be important to the function of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-synuclein is a synuclein protein of unknown function primarily found in neural tissue, making up as much as 1% of all proteins in the cytosol of brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this field, the main interest is on proteins, because discovering their three-dimensional conformation allows us to get clues about the function they are able to perform. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Do you want to understand more about the protein-ligand (drug/protein) interactions and their relationship to drug activity? (bruker.com)
  • We find that the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic moieties in the fluorophores can significantly affect the conformation of the conjugated protein, presumably by transient interactions with the protein surface. (bionmr.com)
  • transmembrane
  • G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) [also referred to as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs)] are integral membrane proteins that play a central role in transmembrane (TM) signal transduction. (pnas.org)
  • tissues
  • The protein product is less abundant than most of the human proteome in many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in many other tissues throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct
  • It is known that G-protein-coupled receptors exhibit several distinct low-energy conformations, each of which might favor binding to different ligands and/or lead to different downstream functions. (pnas.org)
  • Studies
  • Other studies have shown that HDX can sometimes expose the presence of additional gas-phase protein conformers not resolved by IMS and vice versa 18 - 20 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Despite widespread acceptance of the conformation conversion hypothesis, some studies mitigate claims for a direct link between PrPSc and cytotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • abundant
  • The proline content by percentage was found to be higher in UPF0575 than 95% of comparable human proteins.However, the amount of asparagine the protein is less abundant when compared to the human proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-synuclein is a protein that is abundant in the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure
  • We are investigating the interactions that (a) dictate the folding of a polypeptide chain in water into the three-dimensional structure of a native protein and (b) determine the reactivity of such a protein molecule (e.g., as an enzyme) with other small and large molecules. (cornell.edu)
  • Mitochondria
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Bacterial origins regulate orisome assembly, a nuclei-protein complex assembled on the origin responsible for unwinding the origin and loading all the replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • In this closed conformation, the Gly-34 residue of the A domain interacts with UDP-glucose and forces the substrate to adapt a folded structure, facilitating its donation of the hexosyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary structure
  • Short coding motifs, which appear to lack secondary structure, include those that label proteins for delivery to particular parts of a cell, or mark them for phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polyproline helix is a type of protein secondary structure which occurs in proteins comprising repeating proline residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The conversion of a protein from a monomer to a large, ordered multimer could occur by several mechanisms, but the first step probably involves the formation of a seed. (elifesciences.org)
  • At extremely high salt concentrations protein precipitation will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current opinion is that post-translational activity may occur if the protein is poorly folded or folds slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993) "Left-handed Polyproline II Helices Commonly Occur in Globular Proteins", J. Mol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • In facultative aerobes the bacterial members of this family encode a single domain as a stand-alone protein, and genes that encode for either putative histidine kinases or diguanylate cyclases are found in the same predicted operon. (alusdomundo.com)
  • coli
  • The T4 phage initiates an Escherichia coli infection by binding OmpC porin proteins and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of E. coli cells with its long tail fibers (LTF). (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical form. (wikipedia.org)
  • folds
  • Experimental methods of protein structure determination require proteins that express and/or crystallize well, which may inherently bias the kinds of proteins folds that this experimental data elucidate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genomic, modeling-based approach such as ab initio modeling may be better able to identify novel protein folds than the experimental approaches because they are not limited by experimental constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • molecules
  • Tunnels and channels facilitate the transport of small molecules, ions and water solvent in a large variety of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Domains
  • This protein belongs to the LDLR family and is made up of a number of functionally distinct domains, including 3 EGF-like domains, 7 LDL-R class A domains, and 6 LDL-R class B repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other GT-B proteins, SPS contains two Rossman fold domains that are named the A domain and the B domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • this binding is important for many protein-protein interactions and even for interactions between the domains of a single protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Noncoding" sequences are not translated into proteins, and nucleic acids with such motifs need not deviate from the typical shape (e.g. the "B-form" DNA double helix). (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters contain specific DNA sequences such as response elements that provide a secure initial binding site for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • This structure is somewhat similar to that adopted in the fibrous protein collagen, which is composed mainly of proline, hydroxyproline, and glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the visual rhodopsin system by Hermann Kühn, Scott Hall, and Ursula Wilden and in the β-adrenergic system by Martin J. Lohse and co-workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Images of an aerolysin oligomer derived from electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations have helped to construct a model of the protein in its heptameric conformation, and to outline a mechanism by which this assembly might insert into lipid bilayers to form ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental
  • The second part requires the input of experimental data obtained from IM-MS and places your protein on two plots along with a reference set of ordered and disordered proteins, giving an indication about which class the query protein belongs to. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • poorly
  • However, at a common temperature of measurement, the higher configurational entropy of a cold-adapted enzyme may foster conformations that bind ligands poorly, leading to high Km values relative to warm-adapted orthologs. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Hydrogen
  • In the open conformation of H. orenii SPS, fructose 6-phosphate forms hydrogen bonds with Gly-33 and Gln-35 residues in the A domain while UDP-glucose interacts with the B-domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • This chapter describes the current research regarding polyQ misfolding, with emphasis on the species populated during aggregation, suggesting an important role of protein context in modulating the aggregation pathway. (springer.com)
  • Arrestins (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Similar to other histone proteins, histone H2B has a distinct histone fold that is optimized for histone-histone as well as histone-DNA interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • discovered that in the good form of tau the parts of the protein that allow it to stick to itself are hidden, folded inside. (elifesciences.org)
  • By contrast, the bad form of tau exposes the parts that allow it to aggregate, enabling the protein to build upon itself to form a large, toxic assembly. (elifesciences.org)
  • These octomers do not form higher order oligomers, and three of the eight proteins are glycosylated themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • We facilitate antibody generation for our clients by: consulting with our clients to find the best and most cost effective methods to meet their needs, generating of protein Immunogens using a number of expression systems, design custom protein immunogens to produced antibodies against linear as well as conformational epitopes. (ichorbiologics.com)