• gene
  • Transcription can be divided into 3 stages: initiation, elongation, and termination, each regulated by a large number of proteins such as transcription factors and coactivators that ensure that the correct gene is transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To express a protein by a cell-free system, purified and separated components from cell lysates, e.g. of prokaryotic or eucaryotic origin, get re-combined with certain additives (e.g. amino acids, energy or buffer components, transcription enzymes) in a test tube in a respective manner to process a complete bio-protein synthetic cycle of an offered gene, which encodes for a certain protein. (fz-juelich.de)
  • bacteria
  • In their experiments, Hershey and Chase showed that when bacteriophages, which are composed of DNA and protein, infect bacteria, their DNA enters the host bacterial cell, but most of their protein does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translation
  • These structures are often bound by proteins or cause the attenuation of a transcript in order to regulate translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • with prokaryotic and eukaryotic version of their cell-free translation system, have also synthesized proteins with increased production, incorporating techniques like continuous flow to add materials and remove products. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • During his Lakeside Hospital internship, Zamecnik became interested in how cells regulate growth, and hence, in protein chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gt proteins, a.k.a. transducin, is used in the light recognition pathway in retina cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein family has been earlier reported to contain O-linked glycans, whereas recent efforts employing mass spectrometry have revealed the presence of N-linked glycans as well within this protein family isolated from elongating cotton fiber cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • The heterotrimeric G proteins can be classified by sequence homology of the α unit into four families: Gs family. (wikipedia.org)
  • AGPs contains a protein backbone of varied length (5-30 kDa) with N-terminal secretory peptide followed by AGP, fasciclin (FAS) domains, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid anchor site There are 85 predicted AGPs in Arabidopsis, with most of them containing a GPI plasma membrane anchor sequence that ties the extracellular AGPs to the plasma membrane and positions them to function as potential signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Cell-free expression systems in combination with nanodiscs (discoidal lipid bilayer particles) offer a valuable approach to probe membrane proteins in situ. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Customization of the system and offering of a lipid support (here: nanodiscs) enable membrane protein expression in a high yield. (fz-juelich.de)
  • degradation
  • it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plays two roles in the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide alginate: protects alginate from degradation as the polymer traverses the periplasm, and also plays a role in its O-acetylation. (rcsb.org)
  • Escherichia
  • The Escherichia coli ThiF and MoeB proteins are seemingly more closely related than the E. coli ThiF and Campylobacter (for example) ThiF. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structures
  • Additionally, they were able to plasmolyze the bacteriophages so that they went into osmotic shock, which effectively created a solution containing most of the 32P and a heavier solution containing structures called "ghosts" that contained the 35S and the protein coat of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As aminoacids have various properties and shapes, this protein chain folds in a characteristic way that depends on complex factors and acts like a tool in the world of cellular chemical reactions. (hfbk-hamburg.de)
  • The HesB family are found in species as divergent as Homo sapiens (Human) and Haemophilus influenzae suggesting that these proteins are involved in basic cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) is a chemical compound that readily polymerizes in aqueous solution, forming a stable free radical that inhibits protein-nucleic acid interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Units
  • together with the two smaller subunits (β and γ units), they form a tightly associated protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • However, little is known about the expression characteristics of miRNAs and how they regulate protein accumulation in wheat caryopsis under drought stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, drought stress significantly increased the accumulation of protein bodies and protein content in wheat endosperm. (frontiersin.org)
  • known
  • This mix of known and putative ThiF proteins shows a deep split in phylogenetic trees. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • While DNA had been known to biologists since 1869, many scientists still assumed at the time that proteins carried the information for inheritance because DNA appeared simpler than proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses were known to be composed of a protein shell and DNA, so they chose to uniquely label each with a different elemental isotope. (wikipedia.org)
  • while Clades 7 and 10 have domain similarities with proteins of known GalT function in mammalian systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Nanodisc with cell-free expressed bacteriorhodopsin (bR, purple), an α-helical transmembrane retinal protein (originally from H.salinarum). (fz-juelich.de)
  • superfamily
  • Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) are members of the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich cell wall glycoprotein superfamily and are extensively glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Although its pyrrolidine-based structure suggests that it is derived from proline, the results from the experiments indicated that tyrosine, glycine, methionine, and acetate are the primary precursors for the biosynthesis of anisomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Notably, in work leading to a Nobel prize the Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment used a cell-free system, of the cell extract-based type, to incorporate chosen amino acids tagged radioactively into synthesized proteins with 30S extracted from E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Members of the HesA/MoeB/ThiF family of proteins ( IPR000594 ) include a number of members encoded in the midst of thiamine biosynthetic operons. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Other members of this family include various hypothetical proteins that also contain the NifU-like domain suggesting that they too are able to bind iron and are involved in Fe-S cluster biogenesis. (wikipedia.org)