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  • multiple
  • Because the sgRNA is the DNA sequence-specific component of the system, it allows for efficient targeting of multiple regions due to the ease of design and synthesis of new sgRNAs (relative to engineering new custom proteins for each target site). (biologists.org)
  • gene
  • Genetic polymorphisms in promoter and intronic regions of CYP1A2 gene in Roma and Hungarian population samples. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we show that a 170-nt region in the promoter of CYP19A1/aromatase, a key gene required for ovarian estrogen biosynthesis and feminization of chicken embryonic gonads, contains highly quantitative, nucleotide base-level epigenetic marks that reflect phenotypic gonadal sex differentiation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The -1185 A/G and -1051 G/A dimorphisms in the von Willebrand factor gene promoter and risk of myocardial infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, four linked dimorphisms in the VWF gene promoter were demonstrated to influence plasma VWF level. (biomedsearch.com)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Variations in the exons and promoter of the NHE3 gene were analyzed with direct sequencing analysis and mini sequencing (SNaPshot analysis) in 251 cases of SIDS, plus 50 infant control subjects who had died of other causes, and 170 healthy adults. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the involvement of polymorphisms in the NHE3 gene and promoter in cases of SIDS, which may result in an overexpression of NHE3 in the medulla oblongata and which possibly leads to a disturbance in breathing control. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene must then be isolated and incorporated, along with other genetic elements, into a suitable vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genetic elements are generally a promoter and terminator region as well as a selectable marker gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of how the gene functions and interacts with other genetic elements is important. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene then needs to be mapped by comparing the inheritance of the phenotype with other known genetic markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering could potentially fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one. (wikipedia.org)
  • First-tier Golden Gate assembly constructs the single-gene construct by adding in genetic elements such as promoter, open reading frames, and terminators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic variable stress induces offspring hypothalamic gene expression modifications, including elevated methylation levels of the BDNF promoter in the hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered gene expression within the limbic brain regions that may contribute to depression, stress, and anxiety-related disorders in future generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here is the promoter for the FAM149A gene provided by ElDorado and the sequence extracted from the information. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study on Escherichia coli found that gene deletions spontaneously occur in plasmid regions containing Z-DNA-forming sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ENO3 gene spans 6 kb and contains 12 exons, though the first exon is an untranslated region and, thus, non-coding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances in genetic testing, such as exome sequencing and specific gene panels, can provide greater access to diagnoses for muscle β-enolase deficiency and other rare disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFG-TEC binds to the proximal promoter region of the ENO3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identified for the first time in the country and described the genetic, the biochemical and the clinical features of several structural defects of hemoglobins and thalassemia variants, including a point mutation in the promoter region of the gamma globin gene responsible for the Brazilian form of HbF persistence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3' coding region of mir-433 is also the promoter of the neighbouring miRNA gene: mir-127. (wikipedia.org)
  • No such association was found between mir-433 variation and Parkinson's disease despite the fact that variation in the region of the FGF20 gene which binds to mir-433, is associated with Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic Acid
  • This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variation
  • Modern descriptions of biological evolution will typically elaborate on major contributing factors to evolution such as the formation of local micro-environments, mutational robustness, molecular degeneracy, and cryptic genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proximal
  • Oct4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenes that do not contain the proximal enhancer (PE) region are widely used to visualize reprogramming of the somatic to the pluripotent cell state. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genetically
  • An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • This first intron, along with the 5'-flanking region, contains a consensus sequence for muscle-specific regulatory factors that includes a CC(A + T-rich)6GG box, a M-CAT-box CAATCCT, and two myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 1 boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Using this site-specific ChIP, we were able to confirm four previously described Sp1 binding sites within egfr promoter region to be occupied by Sp1 in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Differences
  • These results indicate the impact of this OXTR genetic variant on individual differences in social affective neural processing. (scirp.org)
  • Proteins
  • The first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • According to Dover, TRAM is a genetic system that has features of Non-mendelian inheritance Turnover, copy number and functional Redundancy And Modulatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • After his post-doctoral training at the Oxford University, in the laboratories of Professor Sir David J. Wetherall, whose group was at the time establishing the molecular bases of the thalassemias, he returned to Brazil and started a research group with a major scientific interest in the genetic bases of hematological diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data demonstrated that this Black population is significantly different from its U.S. or Caribbean counterparts, with implications for the medical genetic studies that compare these populations and for the understanding of the hereditary diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic make-up of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and could itself become disposable with respect to the survival of its species. (wikipedia.org)
  • existence
  • These findings taken together with results of familial studies [ 3 ], point to the existence of genetic susceptibility to the renal lesions caused by chronic hyperglycemia. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Male
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • material
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided identification and isolation of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Human directed genetic manipulation began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection in about 12,000 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inducible
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • The response vector supplied with these Tet-On 3G tetracycline-inducible expression systems express two transgenes from our premium TRE3G inducible promoter ( P TRE3G ). (clontech.com)
  • Following λ-red operon activity induction, a linear, double-stranded cassette encoding a selectable marker, such as antibiotic resistance, is transformed into the cells in place of the target gene and incorporated into the DNA behind a specific inducible promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation
  • Using an Sp1 binding site mutation construct we showed that mdm2 repression did not absolutely require Sp1 binding sites in the hTR promoter, suggesting the possibility of pRB/Sp1 independent mechanisms of repression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • humans
  • SINEs are also implicated in certain types of genetic disease in humans and other eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When inserted near or in exons, SINEs can cause improper splicing, become coding regions, or change the reading frame, often leading to disease phenotypes in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The C-terminal is important for the substrate specificity and binding of Dot1 because the region carries a positive charge, allowing for a favorable interaction with the negatively charged backbone of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The EF-1 alpha promoter in these systems is derived from the human EEF1A1 gene that expresses the alpha subunit of eukaryotic elongation factor 1. (clontech.com)
  • We have previously demonstrated that NF-Y and Sp1 interact with the human telomerase RNA (hTR) promoter and play a central role in its regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However contrary to the animal model claims, human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to have healthy phenotype (no glomerulopathy development), but show physiological differences in their responses to respiratory challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Phosphorylated on some or all of the serine and threonine residues present in the C-terminal region. (genecards.org)
  • The pre-SET region contains cysteine residues that form triangular zinc clusters, tightly binding the zinc atoms and stabilizing the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • 7 ] identified an outer member protein gene ( omp ) to differentiate isolates/strains of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' from different geographical origins, although each regions was represented by only one to three strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • known
  • There was also established in Maasin a Court of First Instance, then known as the Promoter Fiscal, where all minor administrative and other cases from Palompon to Hinunangan were heard. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by modifying the DNA nuclear microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • site
  • Therefore, a cavity (active site) where DNA can fit is produced, even though there is another binding region responsible for stable DNA complex during its fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • core
  • The SET domain itself contains a catalytic core rich in β-strands that, in turn, make up several regions of β-sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each PRMT has a unique N-terminal region and a catalytic core. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The above consensus sequences, while conserved on average, are not found intact in most promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial promoters with complete conservation of the -10 and -35 elements have been found to transcribe at lower frequencies than those with a few mismatches with the consensus. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Finally, we show that NF-Y mediated transactivation of the hTR promoter was also suppressed by mdm2 in a dose-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • internal
  • The internal regions of SINEs originate from tRNA and remain highly conserved, suggesting positive pressure to preserve structure and function of SINEs. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • We used paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) to study population genetic structure in the endemic and highly restricted Serbian spruce Picea omorika. (ebscohost.com)