Loading...



  • endometrium
  • The endometrium is continuously changing its morphological and functional properties, responding to cyclic changes of oestrogen and progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Further developments depends on whether there will be fertilization, for which, in fact, everything was started.If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum in the ovary gradually reduces the production of progesterone and atrophies.Reducing the concentration of progesterone leads to detachment of the endometrium, which is the cause of menstruation. (healthtipsing.com)
  • menopausal
  • Although it is not approved for use in menopausal HRT, topical progesterone is registered in some countries under the brand name Progestogel as a 1% gel for direct application to the breasts to treat premenstrual mastodynia (breast pain). (wikipedia.org)
  • creams
  • In these studies, different formulations of topical progesterone including creams and water-based gels (brand names Pro-Gest, Progestelle, and Pro-Femme, as well as compounded) were used, with different sample sizes (n = 6 to 40), at different dosages (15 to 80 mg per day), and for different durations of treatment (1.4 to 24 weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible explanation for the difference is that progesterone creams are more lipophilic and may have a preference for uptake into the fatty layer under the skin whereas alcohol-based gels are more water-soluble and may rapidly distribute into the microcirculation of the skin and then into the general circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In accordance, progesterone induces several hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as CYP3A4, especially during pregnancy when concentrations are much higher than usual. (wikipedia.org)
  • aldosterone
  • Elevated levels of progesterone potently reduce the sodium-retaining activity of aldosterone, resulting in natriuresis and a reduction in extracellular fluid volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with a temporary increase in sodium retention (reduced natriuresis, with an increase in extracellular fluid volume) due to the compensatory increase in aldosterone production, which combats the blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor by the previously elevated level of progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • progestins
  • A large number of synthetic progestogens, or progestins, have been derived from progesterone and are used as medications as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the poor bioavailability of progesterone when taken by mouth, many synthetic progestins have been designed with improved bioavailability by mouth and have been used long before progesterone formulations became available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various progesterone analogs, known as progestins, were synthesized and in 1981 the first progesterone receptor antagonist was introduced by the name RU 38486 (RU 486, mifepristone). (wikipedia.org)
  • formulations
  • However, these topical formulations of progesterone are not regulated and have not been adequately clinically tested, with often little being known about their pharmacokinetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in spite of very low levels of progesterone in circulation with these formulations, studies that have assessed levels of progesterone in saliva and/or capillary blood have found that they are dramatically elevated and in fact greatly supraphysiological. (wikipedia.org)
  • undesirable
  • In addition, progestogens can produce undesirable side effects, although bioidentical progesterone may be safer and better tolerated than synthetic progestogens like MPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mixed profile of action leads to stimulation or inhibition in tissue-specific manner, which further raises the possibility of dissociating undesirable adverse effects from the development of synthetic progesterone receptor drug candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • progestogens
  • Because some believe that progestogens are necessary for full breast development, progesterone is often used in transgender women with the intention of enhancing breast development. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Detailed characterisation of the events occurring in sperm in response to progesterone has elucidated certain events including intracellular calcium transients and maintained changes, slow calcium oscillations, now thought to possibly regulate motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Perimenopausal women have been found to have greater CYP3A4 activity relative to men and postmenopausal women, and it has been inferred that this may be due to the higher progesterone levels present in perimenopausal women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of progesterone and its analogues have many medical applications, both to address acute situations and to address the long-term decline of natural progesterone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Venous blood progesterone levels were assessed and reported in five of the studies and in all cases were low and found not to exceed 3.5 ng/mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating progesterone levels were reported as less than 3.5 ng/mL in the first study, low and widely variable in the second study, and were not given in the third study. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study observed a significant increase in serum levels of progesterone shortly after administration when it was applied as a topical ointment to the breasts but not when it was applied to other areas like the thigh or abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though based on limited data, these findings suggest that alcohol-based progesterone gels may yield relatively high levels of circulating progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The curve of plasma progesterone in ovariectomised cows fitted with either PRID or CIDR show similar overall levels with a more obvious initial peak in the coil versus the t-shaped device. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Progesterone has key effects via non-genomic signalling on human sperm as they migrate through the female tract before fertilization occurs, though the receptor(s) as yet remain unidentified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, progesterone has also been shown to demonstrate effects on octopus spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone is well-tolerated and often produces few or no side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • If progesterone is taken by mouth or at high doses, certain central side effects including sedation, sleepiness, and cognitive impairment can also occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • The combination contains relatively low doses of estradiol and progesterone (1 mg and 20 mg, respectively) within microspheres that results in a slower release of the hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • Vaginally dosed progesterone is being investigated as potentially beneficial in preventing preterm birth in women at risk for preterm birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a recent study, women with a short cervix that received hormonal treatment with a progesterone gel had their risk of prematurely giving birth reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • In addition, absorption of topical progesterone may differ significantly from formulation to formulation due to widely varying ingredients. (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • As a result, it has been suggested that substances that block the progesterone binding site on CatSper channels could potentially be used in male contraception. (wikipedia.org)