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  • antibody
  • TCR-peptide-MHC recognition regulates immune responses including graft and tumor rejection, antiviral cytolysis, and the recruitment and control of other immune cells such as antibody-producing B-cells. (springer.com)
  • However, each B-cell has only one antibody receptor specificity, a phenomenon referred to as allelic exclusion. (springer.com)
  • Design and Methods Here, we used a novel antibody to investigate the normal expression pattern of VpreB3 protein in human hematolymphoid tissues, and determine whether VpreB3 can serve as a useful diagnostic biomarker for select B-cell lymphomas. (haematologica.org)
  • We investigated the structure of the pre-B cell receptor (preBCR) that plays a crucial role in the development and binding properties of an antibody. (oxy.edu)
  • The trimeric pre-BCR composes an antibody heavy chain paired with two surrogate light chain components. (wikipedia.org)
  • March 2016 Clinical trial number NCT01351935 for "Escalating Dose Study in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia" at ClinicalTrials.gov BeiGene Announces Initiation of a Combination Trial of the BTK Inhibitor BGB-3111 with the PD-1 Antibody BGB-A317. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artemis plays an essential role in V(D)J recombination, the process by which B cell antibody genes and T cell receptor genes are assembled from individual V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact site of cleavage of the hairpin by Artemis is variable, and this variability, combined with random nucleotide deletion and addition, confers extreme diversity upon the resulting antibody and T-cell receptor genes, thus allowing the immune system to mount an immune response to virtually any foreign antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a specific antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • During T cell development, it forms a heterodimer with TCRβ and complexes with CD3 at the cell surface to form a functional pre-TCR. (davidson.edu)
  • The Garcia Laboratory has also determined crystal structures of many other major cytokine-receptor complexes including those of IL-1, IL-4, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, LIF and CNTF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Garcia's group used directed evolution to strengthen low-affinity interactions between the receptor Notch1 and ligands Delta-like 4 (DLL4) and Jagged1 (Jag1) as a means of stabilizing the complexes for co-crystallization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Questions concerned with the role of positive and negative selection of developing T cells by peptide-MHC complexes in the thymus in generating an effective and self-tolerant immune system were analyzed in TCR transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • T helper (TH) cells, typically follicular T helper (TFH) cells, that were activated with the same antigen recognize and bind these MHC-II-peptide complexes through their T cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen recep
  • Studies in female mice have shown that estrogen receptor-alpha declines in the pre-optic hypothalamus as they grow old. (wikipedia.org)
  • At UC Berkeley, Timiras studied the effects of caloric restriction on various hypothalamic nuclei, specifically the effects on cell density, estrogen receptor alpha immunoreactivity and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor immunoreactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD19
  • When a BCR binds an antigen tagged with a fragment of the C3 complement protein, CD21 binds the C3 fragment, co-ligates with the bound BCR, and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokine
  • Neonates born to pre-eclamptic mothers had an inflammatory serum cytokine profile. (wiley.com)
  • Garcia's research has established how structural and biophysical principles govern receptor binding and signal activation in many different cytokine systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key findings include determination of the first crystal structures of the following cytokine family members in complex with their surface receptors: gp130 family (IL-6), common gamma (γc) family (IL-2), Type I Interferons (IFNα2/IFNω) and Type III Interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These structures have revealed a wide range of binding topologies and architectures, and demonstrate how convergent evolution has provided many solutions for cytokine receptors to transduce signals across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. (rupress.org)
  • MiR221 promotes precursor B-cell retention in the bone marrow by amplifying the PI3K-signaling pathway in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of precursor, immature, and mature murine B1-cell lines from c-myc/bcl-xL-overexpressing pre-BI cells. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies on monocytic and colon cell lines suggest that plasmin pre-treatment can increase plasminogen binding, allowing the active enzyme to generate binding sites for its precursor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hematopoietic precursor cells isolated from patients on long-term suppressive HIV therapy did not contain HIV-1 DNA. (amfar.org)
  • signals
  • The results demonstrate that signals transduced by CD3ε are not specifically required for T cell maturation but instead contribute quantitatively to TCR signaling in a manner similar to that previously observed for ζ chain. (rupress.org)
  • Unexpectedly, analysis of TCR-transgenic/CD3ε-mutant mice reveals a potential role for CD3ε signals in T cell survival. (rupress.org)
  • Signals transduced by the TCR initiate a broad range of mature T cell responses. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, the phenotype of TCR-transgenic/CD3ε-mutant mice suggests a potential role for CD3ε signals in particular or TCR signals in general for the generation and/or survival of mature T cells. (rupress.org)
  • First, biological signals known as angiogenic growth factors activate receptors on endothelial cells present in pre-existing blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • T2 B cells differentiate into either follicular (FO) B cells or marginal zone (MZ) B cells depending on signals received through the BCR and other receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • Experimental data support the idea that at least some TCR-ITAMs are functionally equivalent with respect to the signaling requirements for T cell development. (rupress.org)
  • In B cells, Lyn sets the threshold of cell signaling and maintains the balance between activation and inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving both the pre-BCR and the BCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • Cells of the two lymphoid lineages express distinct, but related cell-surface antigen receptors, and thereby recognize different types of antigens. (springer.com)
  • Kishi, H., Uematsu, Y., Blüthmann, H. and von Boehmer, H.: Thymic MHC antigens and the specfficity of the ap T cell receptor determine the CD4/CD6 phenotype of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This negative selection process leads to a state of central tolerance, in which the mature B cells don't bind with self antigens present in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell response to these antigens takes multiple days, though antibodies generated have a higher affinity and are more functionally versatile than those generated from T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • CD27 cooperates with the pre-T cell receptor in the regulation of murine T cell development. (rupress.org)
  • The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, we conclude that CD27 may contribute to normal murine T cell development by synergizing with the pre-TCR-mediated signal. (rupress.org)
  • The pre-T cell receptor (TCR) is expressed early during T cell development and imposes a tight selection for differentiating T cell progenitors. (uniroma1.it)
  • Cross talk among Notch3, pre-TCR, and Tal1 in T-cell development and leukemogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • What is the major site of T-cell development? (brainscape.com)
  • The pre-TCR is important in regulating T cell development before the final α chain can be produced. (davidson.edu)
  • It is expressed selectively at the early stages of B cell development, namely, in proB and early preB cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though no CD179a-related human disease or pathology has been reported yet, the deficiency of other components of preB cell receptor such as CD179b, Ig mu heavy chain and CD79a has been shown to result in severe impairment of B cell development and agammaglobulinemia in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • BTK is a kinase that plays a crucial role in B-cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In knockout mice, BLNK deficiency results in a partial block in B-cell development, and in humans BLNK deficiency results in a much more profound block in B-cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is especially important in embryonic development as there are not enough resources to create a rich microvasculature with new cells every time a new vessel develops. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cells undergo two types of selection while developing in the bone marrow to ensure proper development. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the BCR can bind strongly to self-antigen, then the B cell undergoes one of four fates: clonal deletion, receptor editing, anergy, or ignorance (B cell ignores signal and continues development). (wikipedia.org)
  • To complete development, immature B cells migrate from the bone marrow to the spleen as well as pass through two transitional stages: T1 and T2. (wikipedia.org)
  • stromal cells
  • Galectin-1 is expressed by the endometrial stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle, however significantly increases during implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid tissue
  • The tissue distribution of the second isoform, RORγt, appears to be highly restricted to the thymus where it is expressed exclusively in immature CD4+/CD8+ thymocytes and in lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Increased inflammation and activation of immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface in pre-eclampsia could influence the neonatal immune compartment. (wiley.com)
  • The regulation of extracellular proteolytic activity via the plasminogen activation system is complex, involving numerous activators, inhibitors, and receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The existence of a proteolytic positive feedback loop in plasminogen activation has profound implications for the ability of breast cancer cells expressing high amounts of uPA to accumulate a large proteolytic capacity at the cell surface, thereby conferring invasive potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In turn, activation of the insulin receptor has been shown to increase autophosphorylation of Lyn suggesting a possible feedback loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of BLNK was first illustrated in BLNK deficient DT40 cells, a chicken B-cell line, which exhibited an abrogated intracellular calcium mobilisation response and impaired activation of MAP kinases p38, JNK, and to a lesser degree ERK upon B-cell receptor (BCR) activation as compared to wild type DT40 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of NF-{kappa}B promo tes the transition of large, CD43+ pre-B cells to small, CD43- pre-B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • di Meglio, P., A. Ianaro, and S. Ghosh, Amelioration of acute inflammation by systemic administration of a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • PDK1 nucleates T cell receptor-induced signalling complex for NF-kappaB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the SLO, B cell activation begins when the B cell binds to an antigen via its BCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three B cell subsets, FO B cells preferentially undergo T cell-dependent activation while MZ B cells and B1 B cells preferentially undergo T cell-independent activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Receptor-mediated cell-surface localisation of the various components of the PAS (for example, uPA, plg, and plg activator inhibitor type 1 [PAI-and type 2 [PAI- is critical for the spatial and temporal regulation of proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CHMP5 is essential for late endosome function and down-regulation of receptor signalling during mouse embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunity
  • In utero inflammatory priming of neonatal innate immunity taking place in pre-eclamptic pregnancies might influence specific NK cell functions in newborns. (wiley.com)
  • immune
  • Dr. Ghosh has served in an advisory capacity for several organisations, including the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Cancer Institute and the Advisory Board of the Center on Immune Receptors at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Artemis-deficient individuals, V(D)J recombination is blocked because the hairpin ends cannot be opened, and so no mature B or T cells are produced, a condition known as severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). (wikipedia.org)
  • Presently Harald von Boehmer studies the generation and function of regulatory T cells that have an essential role in preventing autoimmunity with the goal to exploit these cells in the prevention of and interference with unwanted immune reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligands
  • The same experimental system served the purpose to study the impact of TCR-ligation on developing T cells by MHC class I and MHC class II ligands on the intrathymic generation of CD8 killer and CD4 helper cells, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Their class-characteristic tertiary structure and specific determinants provide the differential binding of antibodies to Fc receptors, components of the complement system, and transport receptors on mucosal surfaces. (frontiersin.org)
  • activator
  • We have studied plasminogen binding to MCF-7 in which urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) levels were upregulated by PMA (12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) stimulation, allowing flexible and transient modulation of cell-surface uPA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using techniques that preserve cell integrity, we characterise the role of uPA as both a plasminogen receptor and activator and quantify the relative contribution of pre-formed and cryptic plasminogen receptors to plasminogen binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • surface
  • Given its diploid nature, a lymphocyte could theoretically express up to four distinct combinations of antigen receptor chains on its surface. (springer.com)
  • although virtually all T lymphocytes of the αβ lineage express only one particular TCRβ chain, a significant proportion ofT-cells can express two different a chains at the cell surface (6,7) . (springer.com)
  • Monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells from cord blood (CB) of children with pre-eclamptic or healthy mothers were analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers and intracellular cytokines. (wiley.com)
  • However, few studies have used techniques that exclusively characterise cell-surface events and these mechanisms have not been investigated at the breast cancer cell surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell-surface plasminogen binding was significantly enhanced in the presence of elevated levels of uPA in an activity-dependent manner and was greatly attenuated in the presence of the plasmin inhibitor aprotinin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • K. Christopher "Chris" Garcia, Ph.D., is an American scientist renowned for his research on the molecular biology of cell surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be found in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, the cell surface and in the extracellular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, FGFs stimulate a variety of cellular functions by binding to cell surface FGF-receptors in the presence of heparin proteoglycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Receptor-bound pro-uPA is activated by pln and a number of other proteases in vitro through cleavage of the Lys 158 -Ile 159 peptide bond to form the active two-chain protease uPA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Garcia's research led to the first visualization of a T cell receptor (TCR) bound to a peptide-MHC (pMHC) complex and was published in the journal Science in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • antagonists
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • The importance of the MR for early healing and remodeling after myocardial infarction was demonstrated by treatment with MR antagonists, but also by cell specific MR deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ligands acting at this new "opioid" receptor were blocked by the classical opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Links between σ1 receptors and G-proteins have been suggested such as σ1 receptor antagonists showing GTP-sensitive high affinity binding, there is also, however, some evidence against a G-protein coupled hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • Ephedrine's action as an agonist at most major noradrenaline receptors and its ability to increase the release of both dopamine and to a lesser extent, serotonin by the same mechanism is presumed to have a major role in its mechanism of action. (drugbank.ca)
  • An adenosine A1 receptor agonist has been shown to depress preBötC rhythmogenesis independent of the neurotransmitters GABA and glycine in in vitro preparations from 0-7 day old mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • In warm blooded creatures, there are two expansive sorts of foundational microorganisms: embryonic undifferentiated organisms, which are confined from the inward cell mass of blastocysts, and grown-up immature microorganisms, which are found in different tissues. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have a crucial role in excitable cells such as neuronal and muscle tissues, allowing a rapid and co-ordinated depolarization in response to triggering voltage change. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • Another synthetic drug specific to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype is CGS-21680 that has been shown to cause apneas in 14- to 21-day-old rat pups in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following ligands have high affinity for the σ1 receptor and possess high binding selectivity over the subtype σ2: Agonists: PRE-084 Anavex 2-73 Fluvoxamine Amitriptyline L-687,384 SA-4503 Dextromethorphan Dimethyltryptamine (+)-pentazocine (the "unnatural" enantiomer, which lacks affinity for the μ-opioid and κ-opioid receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Each type of rhythm is generated by the same neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, but through different mechanisms, receptors, and ion currents that are controlled by changes in the behavior or environment of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under low levels of oxygen, the pre-Bötzinger complex needs to rearrange the activity of its neurons and requires the assistance of other brain structures, like the pons, to generate gasping. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that HAP1 is localized in mitotic spindle of dividing striatal cells, and associated endosomes, microtubules and vesicles in the basal forebrain and striatial neurons - where HAP1B is preferentially expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells like aortic baroreceptor neurons could have devastating effects including the inability to regulate aortic blood pressure if the onset of synaptic fatigue were to affect them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each presynaptic cell can link up to thousands of connections with other neurons, synaptic fatigue and its recovery can cause interactions with other neuronal circuits and can affect the kinetics with other processes of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Carnitine transports activate long-chain fatty acids (FA) from the cytosol of the cell into the mitochondrion and is therefore essential for fatty acid oxidation (known as beta oxidation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vectors
  • Vectors encoding five different FPs: Cerulean, EGFP, Venus, tdTomato, and mCherry were used to concurrently transduce HSPCs, creating a diverse palette of color marked cells. (jove.com)
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amino
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike
  • Unlike their precursors, they cannot switch antibody classes , cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Pieces of the antigen (which are now known as antigenic peptides ) are loaded onto MHC II molecules, and presented on its extracellular surface to CD4+ T cells (sometimes called T helper cells ). (wikipedia.org)
  • First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they differentiate to specific cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The former (pre-2014) "type species" of the genus, Bovine bocavirus, is now recognized as the founder virus sequence in a broader species called Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1, which is the new type species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in sigma-1 receptor have been associated with distal spinal muscular atrophy type 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, group I mGluRs are known to increase the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a type of ion channel-linked receptor that is central in a neurotoxic process called excitotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of mGluRs are distributed differently in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Phagocytes gobble up pathogens like foreign particles, bacteria, and dead cells so they need to be able to move freely in order to do their job. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • immature
  • Most of these B cells will become plasmablasts (or "immature plasma cells"), and eventually plasma cells, and begin producing large volumes of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most immature blood cell that is considered of plasma cell lineage is the plasmablast . (wikipedia.org)
  • indirect
  • Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine - that is, its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct and indirect actions on the adrenergic receptor system, which is part of the sympathetic nervous system. (drugbank.ca)
  • understood
  • The reasons for these effects are not well understood, even though σ1 receptors have been linked circumstantially to a wide variety of signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Clinical Trials
  • Novel zinc biomarkers, such as the erythrocyte LA:DGLA ratio, have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials and are being developed to more accurately detect dietary zinc deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • During spermatogenesis in mammals and in Drosophila melanogaster, male germ cells develop in a series of essential developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • The role of HAP1 in HD pathogenesis may involve aberration of cell cycle processes, as high immunostaining of HAP1 during the cell cycle has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • While killed vaccines do not have this risk, they cannot generate specific killer T cell responses and may not work at all for some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • appear
  • The σ1 receptor has been shown to appear in a complex with voltage gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 and Kv1.5), leading to the idea that σ1 receptors are auxiliary subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to be restricted to B-lymphocyte-enriched areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • The ephedrine, mixed with noradrenaline, is transported through the noradrenaline reuptake complex and packaged (along with real noradrenaline) into vesicles that reside at the terminal button of a nerve cell. (drugbank.ca)
  • effects
  • In this download probabilistic models for nonlinear partial differential equations, we are extended evidence climate of Nel, by providing a plasma of cell effects for collaborative areas of the Nel study. (pd19.org)
  • CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: 10 times more plentiful than μ-opioid receptors, the receptors responsible for the effects of morphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • Two key features of the pre-BötC are its stability and its ability to adapt to changing environmental and behavioral conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speculation has focused on the ability of other receptors in the σ family (e.g., σ2, with similar binding properties) to compensate for the lack of σ1 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • We developed and validated a fluorescent marking methodology for clonal tracking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with high spatial and temporal resolution to study in vivo hematopoiesis using the murine bone marrow transplant experimental model. (jove.com)
  • They secrete high levels of antibodies, ranging from hundreds to thousands of antibodies per second per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The S4 segment contains many positive charges such that a high positive charge outside the cell repels the helix, keeping the channel in its closed state. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally seen in mature cells at high frequencies of stimuli (>1 Hz). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • produces
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pre-Bötzinger complex produces two types of breathing rhythms under normal levels of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)