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  • species
  • In this study, we focused on polyploidy displayed by a specific fern taxon, the genus Pteris L. (Pteridaceae), comprising over 250 species. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyploidy provides a rapid route for species evolution and adaptation [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyploidy may, in fact, result in the creation of a new species, as in the case of the plant salsify, in which two new tetraploid species of this plant developed from combinations of the original three species. (thesourcenatural.com)
  • Here we review how fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) have been applied to: 1) studies of interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in nature, 2) analyses of phylogenetic relationships between species, 3) genetic mapping and 4) analysis of plant breeding materials. (mdpi.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • Since bacteria rely on diffusion rather than cytoskeletal transport as in eukaryotes, this extreme polyploidy allows for the production of gene products at numerous sites where they are needed in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Endoreduplication (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Adams KL, Cronn R, Percifield R, Wendel JF (2003) Genes duplicated by polyploidy show unequal contributions to the transcriptome and organ-specific reciprocal silencing. (springer.com)
  • To shed light on this paradox and to find out how polyploidy contributes to organ functions, we review here the ploidy-associated shifts in activity of narrowly expressed (tissue specific) genes in human and mouse heart and liver, which have the reciprocal pattern of polyploidization. (nih.gov)
  • plants
  • Plants are especially prone to polyploidy, with some scientists estimating that up to 80% of flowering plants may have this trait. (wisegeek.com)
  • The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. (ualberta.ca)
  • From the start of the discussion, it was clear most people (including, it would appear, the authors of the focal paper) seemed to have difficulty articulating what the central questions of biological interest relating to polyploidy in plants really were. (ualberta.ca)
  • Polyploidy can also occur through exposure some chemicals, including some used for chemotherapy in humans, and through exposure to colchicine in some plants. (thesourcenatural.com)
  • In plants, polyploidy can be induced through exposing the seeds of the plant to colchicine. (thesourcenatural.com)
  • While endoreplication is often limited to specific cell types in animals, it is considerably more widespread in plants, such that polyploidy can be detected in the majority of plant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • It is not unreasonable to suppose that such extraordinary polyploidy has contributed to the separation of this genus from its related genera within the family-all from the one original created kind. (wordpress.com)
  • mainly
  • The first studies of polyploidy in Pteris focused mainly on ploidy differences and apogamy of P. cretica [ 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In both organs, polyploidy protects vitality (mainly due to the activation of sirtuin-mediated pathways), triggers the reserve adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) production, and sustains tissue-specific functions by switching them to energy saving mode. (nih.gov)
  • liver
  • And that might be important for, say, liver regeneration or liver diseases, where it's thought that polyploidy in liver cells may be important for liver function, either for liver detoxification or other aspects of liver biology. (bioquicknews.com)
  • cell
  • The research team may have identified for the first time the regulatory mechanism responsible for cell polyploidy. (bioquicknews.com)
  • He pointed out that many cells of fruit flies (Drosophila), for example, enter a specialized cell cycle known as the endocycle, which results in polyploidy. (bioquicknews.com)
  • We mathematically modeled the behavior of molecules known to control this special type of cell cycle and the progression to polyploidy. (bioquicknews.com)
  • This result suggests that endoreplication and polyploidy may be required for the maintenance of cell identity. (wikipedia.org)