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  • specificity
  • Several such enzymes have been discovered (including CEL I, T4 endonuclease VII, Endonuclease V, T7 endonuclease I). One of the commonly used enzymes is Surveyor nuclease (CEL II), which cleaves the 3′ side of both DNA strands with high specificity at sites of base substitution or insertion/deletion. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • xDNA has a rise of 3.2Å and a twist of 32°, significantly smaller than B-DNA, which has a rise of 3.3Å and a twist of 34.2° xDNA nucleotides can occur on both strands-either alone (known as "doubly expanded DNA") or mixed with natural bases-or exclusively on one strand or the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • xDNA is more stable when compared to regular DNA when subjected to higher temperature, and while entire strands of xDNA, yDNA, xxDNA and yyDNA exist, they are currently difficult to synthesize and maintain.Experiments with xDNA provide new insight into the behavior of natural B-DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • METHODS
  • These methods are simple to run using standard laboratory techniques and equipment, and can detect polymorphisms, single base pair mismatches, and insertions and deletions at low frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • They may have common ancestry with plant positive strand RNA viruses in supergroup 1 with potyvirus lineages, respectively A new clade (as yet unnamed) of six viruses infecting filamentous fungi has been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • This entry represents various uracil-DNA glycosylases and related DNA glycosylases (EC), such as uracil-DNA glycosylase, thermophilic uracil-DNA glycosylase, G:T/U mismatch-specific DNA glycosylase (Mug), and single-strand selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). (wikipedia.org)
  • TDG and MBD4 are strictly specific for double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • members
  • It is a double-stranded RNA non-enveloped virus The members of genus Orbivirus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod borne viruses and are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • One study suggested that TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms, MDM2 SNP309, and A2164G may collectively be associated with non-oropharyngeal cancer susceptibility and that MDM2 SNP309 in combination with TP53 codon 72 may accelerate the development of non-oropharyngeal cancer in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • remove
  • In the second step, the amplified product is attached to a streptavidin column and washed with NaOH to remove the unbiotinylated strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Study of polymorphism of genes that encode lactoferrin helps selecting livestock breeds that are resistant to mastitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. natural selection, origins of new genes, the genetic nature of complex traits, the genetic basis of speciation, evolution of development, and ways that evolutionary forces influence genomic and phenotypic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - continues to divide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This homolog (originally thought to be, and often spoken of as, a single protein) is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it prevents cancer formation, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conformational-change mechanism confers certain advantages, but it also has drawbacks: serpins are vulnerable to mutations that can result in serpinopathies such as protein misfolding and the formation of inactive long-chain polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein structure consists of a globular domain with three α-helices and a two-strand antiparallel β-sheet, an NH2-terminal tail, and a short COOH-terminal tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism for conformational conversion to the scrapie isoform is speculated to be an elusive ligand-protein, but, so far, no such compound has been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Although the apparent level of redundancy in miRNA-mediated regulation would suggest that a single dysregulation or mutation in a cancer cell would be insufficient to result in a biological effect, several recent observations have pointed to altered miRNA regulation in human cancer ( 11 - 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mutation rates for single nucleotide sites for most organisms are very low, roughly 10−9 to 10−8 per site per generation, though some viruses have higher mutation rates on the order of 10−6 per site per generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, other non-sequencing based approaches to detect the mutation or polymorphisms are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • In this method the isolated oligosaccharides serve as an input for HPLC analysis, which allows discrimination between various glycan structures according to the number of monosaccharide units comprising them, with a resolution of a single monosaccharide. (jove.com)
  • structures
  • No. MIP-25/2013) The COD project (abbreviated from the Crystallography Open Database , http://www.crystallography.net/ ) aims at collecting in a single open access database all organic, inorganic and metal organic structures (except for the structures of biological macromolecules that are available at the PDB. (vu.lt)
  • bind
  • Despite this distinction TNA can still bind with complimentary DNA and RNA strands and therefore act as an alternative self-replicating entity. (blogspot.de)
  • reaction
  • The PCR reaction should be optimized to create a single, strong PCR band, as non-specific bands will increase the background noise of the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • One study suggested that TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms, MDM2 SNP309, and A2164G may collectively be associated with non-oropharyngeal cancer susceptibility and that MDM2 SNP309 in combination with TP53 codon 72 may accelerate the development of non-oropharyngeal cancer in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2011 study found that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Meta-analyses from 2011 found no significant associations between TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms and both colorectal cancer risk and endometrial cancer risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • base
  • These methods are simple to run using standard laboratory techniques and equipment, and can detect polymorphisms, single base pair mismatches, and insertions and deletions at low frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • region
  • Damaged bases are first excised, the damaged strand is then aligned with an undamaged homolog, and DNA synthesis repairs the excised region using the undamaged strand as a guide. (wikipedia.org)
  • remove
  • In the second step, the amplified product is attached to a streptavidin column and washed with NaOH to remove the unbiotinylated strand. (wikipedia.org)