• species
  • The plant that develops in that way of pollination cannot make changes in their characters and so the features of a species can be maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the process of pollination to be successful, a pollen grain produced by the anther, the male part of a flower, must be transferred to a stigma, the female part of the flower, of a plant of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid pollination, a type of controlled pollination in which the pollen comes from a different strain (or species), can be used to increase crop suitability, especially through heterosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • One property that results from nested structure of pollination networks is an asymmetry in specialization, where specialist species are often interacting with some of the most generalized species. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is substantial interest into the robustness of pollination networks to species loss and collapse, especially due to anthropogenic factors such as habitat destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, there are over 800 species of fig trees, mostly in the tropics, and almost all of these has its own specific fig wasp (Chalcidoidea) to effect pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • There are several benefits to artificial pollination, including gaining greater control over the genetic population of the crops. (reference.com)
  • Abdel-Baset M, Hezam IM (2015b) An effective hybrid flower pollination and genetic algorithm for constrained optimization problems. (springer.com)
  • plants
  • Furthermore, studies of pollination are invaluable for understanding the evolution of flowering plants and their distribution in the world today. (britannica.com)
  • Plant Reproduction: Methods of Pollination Some of the different ways plants are pollinated. (britannica.com)
  • Plants grow with the help of nature, pollen and a process called pollination. (proflowers.com)
  • When pollination happens, it does not always happen the same way for all plants. (proflowers.com)
  • Flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is a computational intelligence metaheuristic that takes its metaphor from flowers proliferation role in plants. (springer.com)
  • Pollination bags, sometimes called crossing bags, isolation bags or exclusion bags, are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • With self-fertile plants such as tomatoes, wind may be sufficient to shake loose the pollen through pores in the anther and accomplish pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest evidence of ancestors of plants that use this mode of pollination in the fossil record has been dated to the Cretaceous period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although pollination results from the bees visiting these flowers, this is not the primary reason they visit plants with poricidal anthers. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • Pollination differs between angiosperms and gymnosperms in that most angiosperms entice animals to carry their pollen from plant to plant, while most gymno. (reference.com)
  • The focus of this unique volume is on plant-animal interactions and some of the foundations that create and maintain tropical diversity, especially pollination and the phenomenon of the General Flowering. (springer.com)
  • This method of pollination is done by manually transferring pollen from the stamen of one plant to the pistil of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pollination network is two-modal, i.e., it includes only links connecting plant and animal communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyester: Non-woven polyester pollination bags are often used in plant breeding programmes associated with forestry, fruit breeding and some wind pollinated crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • In New Zealand, the red clover plant population was restored when bumblebees were imported from Europe to help with the pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • Abdel-Baset M, Hezam I (2016) A hybrid flower pollination algorithm for engineering optimization problems. (springer.com)
  • Agarwal P, Mehta S (2016) Enhanced flower pollination algorithm on data clustering. (springer.com)
  • Bairwa SK, Kumar P, Baranwal AK (2016) Enhancement of radiation pattern for linear antenna array using flower pollination algorithm. (springer.com)
  • Banerjee S, Chattopadhyay S (2016) Equalizer optimization using flower pollination algorithm. (springer.com)
  • Bekda┼č G, Nigdeli SM, Sayin B (2016) Constraint factor in optimization of truss structures via flower pollination algorithm. (springer.com)
  • flower
  • Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • When they move to another flower, the pollen rubs off of their bodies onto that plant's stigma, resulting in pollination. (proflowers.com)
  • Abdelaziz AY, Ali ES (2015) Static VAR compensator damping controller design based on flower pollination algorithm for a multi-machine power system. (springer.com)
  • Abdelaziz AY, Ali ES, Elazim SA (2016a) Implementation of flower pollination algorithm for solving economic load dispatch and combined economic emission dispatch problems in power systems. (springer.com)
  • Abdelaziz AY, Ali ES, Elazim SA (2016b) Flower pollination algorithm and loss sensitivity factors for optimal sizing and placement of capacitors in radial distribution systems. (springer.com)
  • Abdelaziz AY, Ali ES, Elazim SA (2016c) Optimal sizing and locations of capacitors in radial distribution systems via flower pollination optimization algorithm and power loss index. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Baset M, Hezam IM (2015a) An improved flower pollination algorithm for ratios optimization problems. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Raouf O, Abdel-Baset M (2014) A new hybrid flower pollination algorithm for solving constrained global optimization problems. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Raouf O, Abdel-Baset M, El-Henawy I (2014a) An improved flower pollination algorithm with chaos. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Raouf O, El-Henawy I, Abdel-Baset M (2014b) A novel hybrid flower pollination algorithm with chaotic harmony search for solving sudoku puzzles. (springer.com)
  • Alam DF, Yousri DA, Eteiba MB (2015) Flower pollination algorithm based solar PV parameter estimation. (springer.com)
  • Azis MF, Ryanta A, Putra DFU, Fenno O (2015) Dynamic economic dispatch considering emission using multi-objective flower pollination algorithm. (springer.com)
  • The pollination process as an interaction between flower and pollen vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel. (wikipedia.org)
  • grower
  • In the 1950s when the woods were full of wild bee trees, and beehives were normally kept on most South Carolina farms, a farmer who grew ten acres (4 ha) of watermelons would be a large grower and probably had all the pollination needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • ovule
  • When a pollen grain lands close enough to the tip of an ovule, it is drawn in through the micropyle ( a pore in the integuments covering the tip of the ovule) often by means of a drop of liquid known as a pollination drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processes
  • A higher number of fertilized achenes due to bee pollination mediate processes that result in heavier, better-formed, firmer strawberries that have a better shelf life than strawberries with lower numbers of fertilized achenes from the other pollination treatments. (supermarketguru.com)