• Effacement
  • These insults to podocytes may induce a variety of cellular responses, including gene dysregulation, activation of oxidative stress pathways, and other reactions that lead to foot process effacement and podocyte loss, which may be counterbalanced by regeneration through differentiation of progenitor cells within the Bowman's capsule. (frontiersin.org)
  • mice
  • Using in vitro and in vivo approaches, in the present study, we now show that insulin regulates VEGF-A in the podocyte in both mice and humans via the insulin receptor (IR). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, when podocytes were rendered insulin resistant in vitro (using stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of the IR) or in vivo (using transgenic podocyte-specific IR knockout mice), podocyte VEGF-A production was impaired. (nih.gov)
  • Adriamycin nephrotoxicity and subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) studies indicated that deletion of the histone methylating enzyme EZH2 from podocytes decreased H3K27me3 levels and sensitized mice to glomerular disease. (jci.org)
  • Decreasing H3K27me3 levels in podocytes renders mice susceptible to glomerular injury. (jci.org)
  • C ) Immunoblotting for EZH2 in primary cultured podocytes from EZH2 Ctrl ( n = 3) and EZH2 podKO ( n = 3) mice. (jci.org)
  • Further, mice lacking Atg5 in podocytes exhibited strongly increased susceptibility to models of glomerular disease. (jci.org)
  • B ) Autophagosome (arrow, left) and autolysosome (arrow, right) on electron micrographs in podocytes of wild-type mice. (jci.org)
  • C ) Podocytes displayed high levels of autophagy under basal conditions compared with tubular cells ( n = 3 GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, 30 tubules and glomeruli of each mouse were analyzed). (jci.org)
  • This function is further supported by knockout studies in mice which reveal an essential role in podocyte morphogenesis and a role in the opening of vascular lumens and regulation of vascular permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of mTOR in podocyte function and diabetic nephropathy in humans and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • summarize recent advances
  • In this review, we summarize recent advances that shed light on actions of GH on the podocyte that could play a role in the pathogenesis of DN. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a propitious time for a collection of review articles that summarize recent advances in our understanding of podocyte function and dysfunction, relating to energetics, metabolism, and lipid biology, and that build upon these new insight to suggest novel therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • actin
  • In diverse animal models of proteinuric glomerular disease, recovering the integrity of the actin structure in podocytes resulted in beneficial effects. (srce.hr)
  • basement membrane
  • As an integral member of the filtration barrier in the kidney glomerulus, the podocyte is in a unique geographical position: It is exposed to chemical signals from the urinary space (Bowman's capsule), it receives and transmits chemical and mechanical signals to/from the glomerular basement membrane upon which it elaborates, and it receives chemical and mechanical signals from the vascular space with which it also communicates. (nih.gov)
  • The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Podocytes are major components of glomerular filtration barrier, lining outside of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) to maintain the permeability of the GBM. (hindawi.com)
  • They are present on the tips of the podocytes and maintain the normal relationship between the basement membrane and the podocytes of the epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • Minimal change disease (MCD) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and is associated with the expression of CD80 in podocytes and the increased excretion of CD80 in urine. (springer.com)
  • It can also refer to a process occurring in podocytes in nephrotic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Podocytes are terminally differentiated epithelial cells with limited ability to replicate. (frontiersin.org)
  • This blot shows control (C) basal cells, insulin-stimulated podocytes, and phosphorylation of PKB [phosphorylated (p)PKB]. (nih.gov)
  • E and F ) Comparison of LC3-II accumulation in IMCD cells and differentiated podocytes in the presence of the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine. (jci.org)
  • However, other groups have challenged those findings by demonstrating that podocytes express ACE2, but not ACE, suggesting that pathways opposing ANG II synthesis may be more active in these cells ( 54 ). (physiology.org)
  • Developmentally, podocytes evolve from columnar epithelial cells linked together by an apical junction complex containing both tight junctions (TJ) and adherent junctions (AJ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Once a critical proportion of the total podocyte population is lost, the remaining cells are unable to compensate and glomerulosclerosis develops ( 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • EMT is believed to signify a reversal of the developmental transition from metanephric mesenchyme to the epithelial phenotype characteristic of differentiated podocytes and tubular cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Podocytes are cells in the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys that wrap around capillaries of the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although various viscera have epithelial layers, the name visceral epithelial cells usually refers specifically to podocytes, which are specialized epithelial cells that reside in the visceral layer of the capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Podocytes are epithelia cells in the kidneys that do not readily divide and act as a barrier that prevent urinary protein loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • glomerulosclerosis
  • Podocytes in glomeruli from humans with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or diabetic nephropathy exhibited diminished H3K27me3 and heightened UTX content. (jci.org)
  • Based on the pathologic alterations in the kidney, DN is classified into four groups: class I includes GBM thickening, class II consists of mild (IIA) to severe (IIB) mesangial expansion, class III includes nodular glomerulosclerosis, and class IV represents developed DN which is characterized with over 50% global glomerulosclerosis and podocyte deficiency [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These changes resulted ultimately in podocyte loss and late-onset glomerulosclerosis. (jci.org)
  • Numerous studies have attempted to unravel the importance of podocytes in progressive kidney diseases, including models of diabetic nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis ( 2 , 46 ). (physiology.org)
  • glomerulus
  • Our hypothesis is that podocytes express functional RAS enzymes that constitute a distinct system within the glomerulus. (physiology.org)
  • Podocalyxin, a sialoglycoprotein, is thought to be the major constituent of the glycocalyx of podocytes in the glomerulus (Bowman's capsule). (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Here, we set out to determine the extent to which dynamic changes to histones affect the differentiated phenotype of ordinarily quiescent adult glomerular podocytes. (jci.org)
  • mechanism
  • These findings highlight the importance of induced autophagy as a key homeostatic mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity. (jci.org)
  • autophagy
  • Recent studies suggest that activation of autophagy in podocytes may be a potential therapy to prevent the progression of DN. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we report that podocytes exhibit an unusually high level of constitutive autophagy. (jci.org)
  • diseases
  • Recent advances in primary podocyte diseases have included the demonstration that phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a major autoantigen in membranous nephropathy that over 30 Mendelian genes cause FSGS, and that apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are a major effect susceptibility factor. (frontiersin.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • More recent research has shown that abnormally elevated serum glucose and a consequent increase in cellular glucose content may lead to dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism in podocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • negatively
  • Furthermore, it has become clear that saturated fatty acids can negatively affect podocytes and cause ER stress, a phenomenon that is preventable by treatment with farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-activating ligands. (frontiersin.org)
  • transgenic
  • D ) Inhibition of autophagosomal degradation with chloroquine in differentiated podocytes induced a rapid accumulation of GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes in GFP-LC3 -transgenic podocytes. (jci.org)
  • apical
  • d ) Podocyte FP are defined by three membrane domains: the apical membrane domain (AMD) ( blue ), the basal membrane domain (BMD) ( red ), and the SD ( black ). (nih.gov)
  • survival via
  • The diabetic milieu, including hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) decreases podocyte survival via multiple pathways, including decreased phosphorylation of survival factor AKT and activation of proapoptotic P38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) ( 7 , 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • inhibition
  • Conversely, inhibition of the Jumonji C domain-containing demethylases Jmjd3 and UTX increased the H3K27me3 content of podocytes and attenuated glomerular disease in adriamycin nephrotoxicity, SNx, and diabetes. (jci.org)