• genome
  • By analyzing DNA sequences contained in the plastid of the thecate amoeba Paulinella, researchers have shown that it is a recent endosymbiont whose genome features are virtually unchanged from those of its cyanobacterial progenitor. (wordnik.com)
  • This trait reflects the relative independence of the plastid genome when compared with that of the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Evidence of a chimeric genome in the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids. (nih.gov)
  • These genes are relics of an ancestral cluster related to homologs in Chlorobi/Gammaproteobacteria that we hypothesize was established by HGT in the progenitor of plastids, thus providing a 'footprint' of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Men genes encoded as clusters in chromosomes of prokaryotes and in the plastid genome of Cyanidiales (black boxes), as well as the architecture of the PHYLLO gene (yellow boxes) in nuclear genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes, are indicated for each taxon. (nih.gov)
  • Past work involving the plastid genome (plastome) of holoparasitic plants has been confined to Scrophulariaceae (or Orobanchaceae) which have truncated plastomes owing to loss of photosynthetic and other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data provide preliminary evidence suggestive of the retention of highly diverged and truncated plastid genome in Cytinus. (nih.gov)
  • The number of genome copies per plastid is variable, ranging from more than 1000 in rapidly dividing cells, which, in general, contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, evidence of possible plastid genome loss was found in Rafflesia lagascae, a non-photosynthetic parasitic flowering plant, and in Polytomella, a genus of non-photosynthetic green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some scientists argue that plastid genome loss is unlikely since even non-photosynthetic plastids contain genes necessary to complete various biosynthetic pathways, such as heme biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids are a specialized class of cellular organelles that carry their own genome and are believed to be descendants of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) which formed a symbiotic relationship with the eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Here we demonstrate that the origin of the plastid-encoded gene cluster for menaquinone/phylloquinone biosynthesis in the extremophilic red algae Cyanidiales contradicts a cyanobacterial genealogy. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • For Smal digests, all plastid gene probes hybridized to a common fragment ca. 20 kb in length in this species. (nih.gov)
  • DeSantis-Maciossek G, Kofer W, Bock A, Schoch S, Maier RM, Wanner G, R üdiger W, Koop HU and Herrmann RG (1999) Targeted disruption of the plastid RNA polymerase gene rpoA, B and C1: molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure. (springer.com)
  • Plants deficient in the IMMUTANS gene that encodes the oxidase are especially susceptible to photooxidative stress during early plastid development. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Our results indicate that the rate-limiting steps for nuclear and plastid transformation are different, and each must be optimized separately. (biomedsearch.com)
  • envelope
  • The developing plastid has many nucleoids, localized at the periphery of the plastid, bound to the inner envelope membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids forming the thylakoid membranes, richest in high-fluidity linolenic acid are synthesized in a complex pathway involving exchange of lipid precursors between the endoplasmic reticulum and inner membrane of the plastid envelope and transported from the inner membrane to the thylakoids via vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The envelope of the plastid, however, remains intact. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaf
  • Homoplasmic plastid transformants are readily obtained in cell colonies, or in regenerated plants, providing a more consistent and versatile model than the leaf transformation system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The term gerontoplast was first introduced in 1977 to define the unique features of the plastid formed during leaf senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The body is conceived of as a cell-state or cell-republic, composed of innumerable plastid citizens, and its government, both in health and disease, is emphatically a government "of the cells, by the cells, for the cells. (wordnik.com)
  • structure
  • The predicted structure is similar to that of the alternative oxidase, with an additional Exon 8 domain that is required for the plastid oxidase's activity and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Furthermore, recent data seem to show that plastids are affected by programmed cell death and DNA degradation, which occur in the whole anther throughout pollen development. (springer.com)
  • The lack of plastid terminal oxidase indirectly causes photodamage during plastid development because protective carotenoids are not synthesized without the oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • Despite evidence that Camassia species hybridize, by sampling sympatric populations we detected only a single case of introgression of plastid haplotypes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • species
  • However, the timing of plastid disappearance fluctuates in the different cell layers and also depending on species. (springer.com)
  • contain
  • For the great bulk of our globe is made up of the highly crystallized and non-fossiliferous rocks, which neither contain any elementary principle of life, nor exhibit the slightest trace of vital organism, even to the minutest living speck or plastid . (wordnik.com)
  • Each nucleoid particle may contain more than 10 copies of the plastid DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Plastid division in the anther is synchronous with cell division, except in the vegetative cell during pollen maturation. (springer.com)
  • In this family, microspore plastids may become so involved in programmed cell death that they are unable to follow the alternative sporopohytic program. (springer.com)
  • Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. (wikipedia.org)