• genes
  • A combination of genetic modification and traditional plant grafting techniques can help watermelon crops resist a potent plant virus without introducing foreign genes into the fruit, say researchers. (scidev.net)
  • This produced fruit that contained no foreign genes, avoiding some of the often-controversial issues relating to genetically modified crops. (scidev.net)
  • The researchers say that because genes conferring resistance to the virus do not exist in nature, traditional plant breeding cannot solve the problem. (scidev.net)
  • However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. (springer.com)
  • An EFSA statement has been published today that provides a consolidated overview of the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes (ARMG) in GM plants, including a joint scientific opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. (europa.eu)
  • The Panels concluded that, according to information currently available, adverse effects on human health and the environment resulting from the transfer of the two antibiotic resistance marker genes, nptII and aadA, from GM plants to bacteria, associated with use of GM plants, are unlikely. (europa.eu)
  • The key barrier to stable uptake of antibiotic resistance marker genes from GM plants to bacteria is the lack of DNA sequence identity between plants and bacteria. (europa.eu)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of selective breeding, in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification (GM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, or the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, Chinese scientists generated dairy cows genetically engineered with genes from human beings to produce milk that would be the same as human breast milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smartstax is a brand of GM maize that has eight different genes added to it, making it resistant to two types of herbicides and toxic to six different species of insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as aiming to produce novel crops, scientists produce genetically modified tomatoes to understand the function of genes naturally present in tomatoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists in India have delayed the ripening of tomatoes by silencing two genes encoding N-glycoprotein modifying enzymes, α-mannosidase and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene (afa3) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the tomato's tolerance to frost, which became an icon in the early years of the debate over genetically modified foods, especially in relation to the perceived ethical dilemma of combining genes from different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes in a plant are what determine what type of qualitative or quantitative traits it will have.The main purpose plant breeders is have is so they can create a specific outcome of plants and potentially new plant varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a new genetic background. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • Arpaia S (1996) Ecological impacts of Bt-transgenic plants: assessing possible effects of CryIIIB on honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) colonies. (springer.com)
  • Between 1996 and 2015, the total surface area of land cultivated with GM crops increased by a factor of 100, from 17,000 km2 (4.2 million acres) to 1,797,000 km2 (444 million acres). (wikipedia.org)
  • farmers
  • A go-ahead for field tests could come as early as next month, and Monsanto says it hopes to be able to sell seeds to farmers in time for planting next year. (sciencemag.org)
  • Farmers have widely adopted GM technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of GM crops expanded rapidly in developing countries, with about 18 million farmers growing 54% of worldwide GM crops by 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, opponents have objected to GM crops on several grounds, including environmental concerns, whether food produced from GM crops is safe, whether GM crops are needed to address the world's food needs, whether the foods are readily accessible to poor farmers in developing countries, and concerns raised by the fact these organisms are subject to intellectual property law. (wikipedia.org)
  • economic losses to farmers caused by unintended presence of genetically engineered materials, as well as how such mechanisms might work. (wikipedia.org)
  • recommended that if the losses are serious, that a crop insurance program for organic farmers be put in place, and that an education program should be undertaken to ensure that organic farmers are putting appropriate contracts in place for their crops and that neighboring GM crop farmers are taking appropriate containment measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key areas of controversy related to GMO foods are whether they should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of GM crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance, the impact of GM crops for farmers, and the role of GM crops in feeding the world population. (wikipedia.org)
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations require farmers who plant Bt corn to plant non-Bt corn nearby (called a refuge) to provide a location to harbor vulnerable pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have developed GM dairy cattle to grow without horns (sometimes referred to as "polled") which can cause injuries to farmers and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially early farmers simply selected food plants with particular desirable characteristics, and employed these as progenitors for subsequent generations, resulting in an accumulation of valuable traits over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • address the world's food needs
  • Critics have objected to GM fish on several grounds, including ecological concerns, animal welfare concerns and with respect to whether using them as food is safe and whether GM fish are needed to help address the world's food needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • EFSA
  • EFSA organised a series of technical discussions on the guidance document with representatives of EU Member States, with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and with GM applicants to exchange views on the scientific issues. (europa.eu)
  • In order to assess the safety of a GM plant submitted for authorisation in the European Union, EFSA requires all applicants to follow its guidance documents which specify the type of data and information that should be submitted. (europa.eu)
  • In the ERA guidance, EFSA reviewed and updated seven specific areas that need to be addressed when assessing the environmental impact of a GM plant. (europa.eu)
  • crop to be approved
  • For a GM crop to be approved for release in the US, it must be assessed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) agency within the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and may also be assessed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental protection agency (EPA), depending on the intended use. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • Scientific experts on EFSA's GMO Panel have updated and further developed its guidance for the environmental assessment of GM applications submitted for authorisation in the EU, in particular with respect to data generation, collection and analysis. (europa.eu)
  • Environmental assessments of biotechnology-derived plants are carried out by the CFIA's Plant Biosafety Office (PBO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Traits that breeders have tried to incorporate into crop plants include: Improved quality, such as increased nutrition, improved flavor, or greater beauty Increased yield of the crop Increased tolerance of environmental pressures (salinity, extreme temperature, drought) Resistance to viruses, fungi and bacteria Increased tolerance to insect pests Increased tolerance of herbicides Longer storage period for the harvested crop Successful commercial plant breeding concerns were founded from the late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgene
  • Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) have been modified with a transgene coding for human lactoferrin, which doubles their survival rate relative to control fish after exposure to Aeromonas bacteria and Grass carp hemorrhage virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and for better nutrient profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • They infected tobacco with Agrobacterium transformed with an antibiotic resistance gene and through tissue culture techniques were able to grow a new plant containing the resistance gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other common traits include virus resistance, delayed ripening, modified flower colour or altered composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progeny from that cross would then be tested for yield (selection, as described above) and mildew resistance and high-yielding resistant plants would be further developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monsanto
  • DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ethylene, a hormone that triggers ripening of fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • Honey from genetically modified plants: integrity of DNA, and entry of GM-derived proteins into the food chain via honey. (springer.com)
  • In routine analysis, screening methods based on real-time PCR are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified (GM) plant material in food and feed. (springer.com)
  • Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. (springer.com)
  • As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. (springer.com)
  • This raises a larger question: how much of the world's food supply is now contaminated with GM plant material? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • There is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of agriculture and food and feed production, co-existence means using cropping systems with and without genetically modified crops in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the European Union, since 2001, conventional and organic food and feedstuffs can contain up to 0.9% of authorised GM material without being labelled GM (any trace of non-authorised GM products and would cause shipments to be rejected. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada, the largest producer of GM canola, GM crops are regulated by Health Canada, under the Food and Drugs Act, and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency are responsible for evaluating the safety and nutritional value of genetically modified foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controversy exists over the use of food and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of from conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Regulating Agricultural Biotechnology Genetically Modified Food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human-directed genetic manipulation of food began with the domestication of plants and animals through artificial selection at about 10,500 to 10,100 BC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. (wikipedia.org)
  • No reports of ill effects have been documented in the human population from genetically modified food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consumer concerns about food quality first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This began an enduring concern over the purity and later "naturalness" of food that evolved from a single focus on sanitation to include others on added ingredients such as preservatives, flavors and sweeteners, residues such as pesticides, the rise of organic food as a category and, finally, concerns over GM food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveys indicate public concerns that eating genetically modified food is harmful, that biotechnology is risky, that more information is needed and that consumers need control over whether to take such risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Religious groups have raised concerns over whether genetically modified food will remain kosher or halal. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-primary source needed] Food writer Michael Pollan does not oppose eating genetically modified foods, but expressed concerns about biotechnology companies holding the intellectual property of the foods people depend on, and about the effects of the growing corporatization of large-scale agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Japan is a leading GM food importer, and permits but has not grown GM food crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • GloFish is a patented technology which allows GM fish (tetra, barb, zebrafish) to express jellyfish and sea coral proteins giving the fish bright red, green or orange fluorescent colors when viewed in ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the progeny will be a clone of Randy, but without his horns, and their offspring should also be hornless Goats have been genetically engineered to produce milk containing strong spiderweb-like silk proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pout also have antifreeze proteins in their blood, which allow the GM salmon to survive near-freezing waters and continue their development. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • However, reduced use of pesticides with insect resistant GM crops and reduced tillage that is possible with herbicide resistant crops could be beneficial to bee populations compared to conventional agriculture. (springer.com)
  • The authors of the study propose the feral GT73 OSR "probably originated from spillage of conventional OSR seeds or other seed imports that were contaminated with GM seeds. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Nonentheless, there are several examples of failure to keep GM crops separate from conventional ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enviropig was a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs in Canada created with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assessments
  • In another opinion, the GMO Panel reviewed its previous assessments of individual GM plants containing ARMG taking into account the findings and conclusions of the joint opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. (europa.eu)
  • insect
  • When a vulnerable insect eats the Bt-containing plant, the protein is activated in its gut, which is alkaline. (wikipedia.org)
  • foods
  • Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. (springer.com)
  • Because there is no global approval and registration process for foods derived from GM organisms, approvals are country specific, and testing requirements sometimes differ. (springer.com)
  • Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods or bioengineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foods produced from or using GM organisms are often referred to as GM foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • These phases became known as the first and second generation of genetically modified (GM) foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Peter Celec describes, "benefits of the first generation of GM foods were oriented towards the production process and companies, the second generation of GM foods offers, on contrary, various advantages and added value for the consumer", including "improved nutritional composition or even therapeutic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address these problems, Pollan has brought up the idea of open sourcing GM foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some countries have approved but not actually cultivated GM crops, due to public uncertainty or further government restrictions, while at the same time, they may import GM foods for consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drought
  • A gene from rice (Osmyb4), which codes for a transcription factor, that was shown to increase cold and drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, was inserted into the tomato. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • First, manufacturers only wanted to use transgenics to be able to grow more soy at a minimal cost to meet this demand, and to fix any problems in the growing process, but they eventually found they could modify the soybean to contain healthier components, or even focus on one aspect of the soybean to produce in larger quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classical plant breeder may also make use of a number of in vitro techniques such as protoplast fusion, embryo rescue or mutagenesis (see below) to generate diversity and produce hybrid plants that would not exist in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • sale and consumption
  • In November 2015, the FDA of the USA approved the GM AquAdvantage salmon created by AquaBounty for commercial production, sale and consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • breeders
  • In the early 20th century, plant breeders realized that Mendel's findings on the non-random nature of inheritance could be applied to seedling populations produced through deliberate pollinations to predict the frequencies of different types. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective
  • Humans have domesticated plants and animals since around 12,000 BCE, using selective breeding or artificial selection (as contrasted with natural selection). (wikipedia.org)
  • wheat
  • A GM Melon engineered for delayed senescence was approved in 1999 and a herbicide tolerant GM wheat was approved in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • To create a resistant plant, they inserted a viral gene into watermelon rootstock. (scidev.net)
  • One in ten of the modified rootstocks were resistant to infection. (scidev.net)
  • Additionally, the researchers found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The People's Republic of China was the first country to allow commercialized transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992, which was withdrawn in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • commercial
  • As the technology improved and genetically organisms moved from model organisms to potential commercial products the USA established a committee at the Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) to develop mechanisms to regulate the developing technology. (wikipedia.org)