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  • improve
  • The reference genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis represent a significant contribution to the SOL100 initiative because, as members of the Nicotiana genus of Solanaceae, they strengthen the value of the already existing resources by providing additional comparative information, thereby helping to improve our understanding of plant metabolism and evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are either natural or synthetic compounds that are applied directly to a target plant to alter its life processes and its structure to improve quality, increase yields, or facilitate harvesting etc. (cainindia.org)
  • Botany
  • revised 1905) A Text-Book of Botany for Colleges and Universities(two volumes, 1910-11) Elementary Studies in Botany (1913) Plant Breeding (1914) Evolution, Heredity and Eugenics (1916) Religion and Science (1923) In 1875, Coulter founded the Botanical Gazette and thereafter continued to be its editor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the book, Theophrastus described plants by their uses, and attempted a biological classification based on how plants reproduced, a first in the history of botany. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to our Knowledge of Phytogenesis (1838), in which he stated that all parts of the plant organism are composed of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaf
  • Parenchyma cells comprise many soft tissues of plants (e.g., pith , cortex , leaf mesophyll , etc. (berkeley.edu)
  • List of vegetables List of leaf vegetables List of vegetable dishes List of cabbage dishes List of carrot dishes List of eggplant dishes List of onion dishes Several culinary fruits Edible tubers - a variety of potato cultivars Vegetables Edible fungi - edible fungi are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye). (wikipedia.org)
  • a lower pressure results in a wilted cell or plant structure (i.e. leaf, stalk). (wikipedia.org)
  • A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them. (wikipedia.org)
  • stomata
  • Stomata, as mentioned above, are the structures through which gas exchange occurs in leaves. (sparknotes.com)
  • Pollution negatively impacts this plant structure by reducing the size of the stomata, as reported in a 2005 study published in the journal "Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. (chron.com)
  • Most leaves have distinctive upper surface (adaxial) and lower surface (abaxial) that differ in colour, hairiness, the number of stomata (pores that intake and output gases), epicuticular wax amount and structure and other features. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The variety of stem form (woody or non-woody, densly branching or un-branched) gives plants a variety of growth forms . (berkeley.edu)
  • Plants with different growth forms often have different life histories and ecologies. (berkeley.edu)
  • Since life history and ecology are important features that are modified during evolution, growth form is an important feature of plants and lineages. (berkeley.edu)
  • Some plants occupy a number of growth forms depending on the conditions under which they live, or at different points in their life cycle. (berkeley.edu)
  • Pr is the inactive form of phytochrome and will not allow for plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Schwann, Theodor and Schleyden, M. J., Microscopical researches into the accordance in the structure and growth of animals and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turgor pressure also plays a key role in plant cell growth where the cell wall undergoes irreversible expansion due to the force of turgor pressure as well as structural changes in the cell wall that alter its extensibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher plants, turgor pressure is responsible for apical growth of things such as root tips and pollen tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant's
  • In a study done in Nepal, it was observed that overharvesting, unscientific collection of rhizomes, harvesting of plants before seed maturity, low viable seed production and long dormancy of seeds are the major threats to the plant's propagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tubers
  • Tubers form when the hypocotyls of a seedling swells to form a hollow, chambered structure that can become inhabited by ants. (wikipedia.org)
  • List of culinary fruits List of citrus fruits List of coconut dishes List of fruit dishes List of apple dishes List of avocado dishes List of banana dishes List of lemon dishes and beverages List of melon dishes List of plum dishes List of garden plants List of plants used in South Asian cuisine Edible tubers - Not all tubers are edible. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • List of edible seeds List of legume dishes List of tofu dishes Edible plants Fruit - In common language usage, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • These are the male sexual organs of the plant. (coursera.org)
  • Play media Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaves also function to store chemical energy and water (especially in succulents) and may become specialised organs serving other functions, such as tendrils of peas and other legumes, the protective spines of cacti and the insect traps in carnivorous plants such as Nepenthes and Sarracenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Generally, turgor pressure is caused by the osmotic flow of water and occurs in plants, fungi, and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • parenchyma
  • As parenchyma is incorporated into vascular tissue (rays in wood for example), it also helps in the movement of water and solutes throughout the plant body. (berkeley.edu)
  • 1903
  • 1903. The uses of British plants traced from antiquity to the present day, together with the derivations of their names. (wikipedia.org)
  • GENUS
  • Food bodies are identified by the main nutrient they contain and by the genus of plant producing them. (wikipedia.org)
  • spines
  • Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutes
  • This allows the plant to select the solutes that passes further into the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • One mechanism in plants that regulate turgor pressure is its semipermeable membrane, which only allows some solutes to travel in and out of the cell, which can also maintain a minimum amount of pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wheat
  • On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • varieties
  • As of May 2012[update] the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) recognizes several varieties: Paris polyphylla var. (wikipedia.org)
  • survive
  • A stressed plant will not flower but, rather, will use its resources to survive the threat. (chron.com)
  • C. borneensis have been found to be completely dependent on its partner plant, not being able to survive without the provided nesting spaces and food bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In laboratory tests, the worker ants did not survive away from the plants, and in their natural habitat they were never found anywhere else. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Most land plants consist of a stem or axis , which functions for support and contains the conducting tissues of the plant. (berkeley.edu)
  • responses
  • Photoperiodism can also be defined as the developmental responses of plants to the relative lengths of light and dark periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1916
  • It was published simultaneously by William Heinemann in London and G. P. Putnam's Sons in New York, as a two-volume book Theophrastus Enquiry into Plants and minor works on odours and weather signs in 1916. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • Like all oomycetes, zoospores produced by P. megakarya need free water on plant surfaces in order to encyst, germinate, and penetrate host tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • main axis of plant that elongated and produces leaves. (brainscape.com)
  • Broad, flat leaves with complex venation are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many structures of non-vascular plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens, which are not plants at all (in the sense of being members of the kingdom Plantae), look and function much like leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows and eucalyptss. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Modelling generates specific knowledge complementary to experimental observations, as processes are studied in the context of the whole plant system and environmental interactions. (wur.nl)
  • Plant-animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustrations
  • This folio edition has the Greek and Latin texts printed in parallel, along with commentaries on the text by Julius Caesar Scaliger and Robert Constantine, and woodcut illustrations of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • While doing so, the plant also loses an enormous amount of water by evaporation. (sparknotes.com)
  • Tracheids serve for support and for upward conduction of water and dissolved minerals in all vascular plants and are the only such elements in conifers and ferns. (britannica.com)
  • They may infect the plant either directly or indirectly depending on the availability of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, this entails the water moving from the low concentration solute outside the cell, into the cell's vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • It has been deemed sound and a viable means to reduce the earthquake effects on structures and equipment. (asce.org)