• Microbial
  • From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components ( i.e . leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage 5-7 . (jove.com)
  • He also showed that certain microbial cultures, snake venoms, and some plants and poisonous mushrooms have diastases that act on the pancreatic juice in the same way as does enterokinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaves
  • Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. (jove.com)
  • Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part ( i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, the use of a pathogen inoculation method that efficiently and reproducibly delivers the pathogen in between the plant leaves, would facilitate the rapid identification of maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis . (jove.com)
  • ecology
  • Here we examine the global introduction history and invasion ecology of Proteaceae-a large plant family with many taxa that have been widely disseminated by humans, but with few known invaders. (jove.com)
  • Arabidopsis
  • They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (jove.com)
  • He used, among others, two lines of Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant, that has proved to be of great significance in modern Molecular Biology of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Here we describe a method for producing 13 C and 15 N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. (jove.com)
  • Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom% 13 C and 6.7 atom% 15 N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom% 13 C and 0.56 atom% 15 N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water residual components, respectively). (jove.com)
  • pathogens
  • Identification of crop plants including maize, wheat, and rice that are resistant to various biotrophic pathogens has significantly decreased yield losses annually 3-5 . (jove.com)
  • From the perspective of applied research, it is important to study the significance of plant protection and growth promoting effect, and the safety of induced resistance factors, and a kind of factor can cause plant to a variety of ) Pathogens, and even extensive pests, the protection of the system, then it has as a good basis for applied research materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • memoirs
  • In: Botanical and physiological memoirs…, 1853: The phenomenon of rejuvenescence in nature, especially in the life and development of plants, by Alexander Braun. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1874 to the close of his life Pringsheim's activity was chiefly directed to physiological questions: he published, in a long series of memoirs, a theory of the carbon-assimilation of green plants, the central point of which is the conception of the chlorophyll-pigment as a screen, with the main function of protecting the protoplasm from light-rays which would neutralize its assimilative activity by stimulating too active respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Further study indicated that the average cell length in both leaf and root vascular bundles was enhanced, and the cell growth in suspension cultures was increased, which revealed the cellular basis for OsEXPA8-mediated rice plant growth acceleration. (jove.com)
  • physiologist
  • In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • As, a first step toward indentifying maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis , a needle injection inoculation method and a resistance reaction screening method was utilized to inoculate maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines with a U. maydis strain and to select resistant plants. (jove.com)
  • Maize, teosinte and maize x teosinte introgression lines, consisting of about 700 plants, were planted, inoculated with a strain of U. maydis , and screened for resistance. (jove.com)
  • Induced resistance of plants, including plants in the role of exogenous factors under the two types of reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • After this description of the phenomenon, several different terms have been used, namely, "acquired physiological immunity", "resistance displacement", "plant immune function" and "induced system resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference is mainly due to the fact that the latter can effectively promote plant growth and increase crop yield while causing (or increasing) plant resistance to diseases (sometimes including pests). (wikipedia.org)
  • The research and application of inducing plant system resistance have good prospects. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • During the last few years, NO has been detected in several plant species, and an increasing number of reports on its function have implicated NO as an important effector in plant growth, development, and defense. (unimi.it)
  • We expect that the method should also be applicable to other species of plants with seeds small enough to fit into the wells of 96-well plates. (jove.com)
  • The probability of naturalized species becoming invasive was greatest for species with large native ranges, those used as barrier plants, tall species, species with small seeds, and serotinous species. (jove.com)
  • Soils can be collected from the zone of root influence (soils from the rhizosphere and directly adjacent to the rhizosphere) of plants in the field from conspecific and heterospecific plant species. (jove.com)
  • Certain plant species, such as Tradescantia canaliculata and T. subaspera, are sympatric throughout their geographic distribution, yet they are reproductively isolated as they flower at different times of the year. (wikipedia.org)
  • gibberellic
  • Genes in the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP-box) gene family encode SBP proteins, which perform a variety of regulatory functions that are involved in leaf development, vegetative phase change, flower and fruit development, plant architecture, sporogenesis, gibberellic acid signaling, and toxin response [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • organs
  • where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many plant organs the MPT lies somewhere between 10 and 200 seconds, and therefore a clinostat should rotate on a comparable timescale in order to avoid a gravitropic response. (wikipedia.org)
  • surfaces
  • We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. (jove.com)
  • Cells actively sense ECM rigidity and migrate preferentially towards stiffer surfaces in a phenomenon called durotaxis. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • During his tenure at Leipzig, Pfeffer published an article on the use of photography to study plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • ROI are key modulators of NO in triggering cell death, but the nature of the mechanisms by which this occurs in plants is different from those commonly observed in animals. (unimi.it)
  • We demonstrate that plant-induced heterogeneity results in different outcomes than predicted by traditional coexistence models, perhaps because of the dynamic nature of these feedbacks. (jove.com)
  • The mind considered by itself is seen as the principal gateway to a different spectrum of phenomena that differ from the physical sense data. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur (1802-22) by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, and the causes through which they have been effected. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The phages were isolated mainly from several waste water treatment plants in Germany. (jove.com)
  • Cellwall-free protoplasts of plant cells (mainly of tobacco and Chinese cabbage) were infected with viruses or with their RNA with a high efficiency and used for physiological investigations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desert plants are a major food source for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), as they have a mainly herbivorous diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Phosphate deficiencies can cause physiological side effects, especially pertaining to the reproductive system, as well as side effects of delayed growth and failure to regenerate new bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desert plants grow in mineral-deficient soil, and may be a cause of mineral deficiency in desert tortoise diets, resulting in the intake of this supplemental material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in physiological conditions can trigger protease activities that cause local release of such stores. (wikipedia.org)
  • this may cause an increase in ethylene production, which may in turn cause some of the phenomena otherwise attributed to agravitropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • rice
  • expansin gene OsEXPA8 in rice growth and development by generating transgenic plants. (jove.com)
  • Overexpression of OsEXPA8 in rice plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture (longer primary roots, more lateral roots and root hairs), increased plant height, enhanced leaf number and enlarged leaf size. (jove.com)
  • His work was centered around the indica cultivars f rice plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These results support a role for expansins in cell expansion and plant growth. (jove.com)
  • These include laser-capture microdissection (LCM) 2 or GFP expressing plants used for protoplast generation and subsequent fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) 3,4 , the recently described INTACT system for nuclear precipitation 5 and immunoprecipitation of polysomes 6 . (jove.com)
  • A broadly acceptable definition of a sense would be "A system that consists of a group of sensory cell types that responds to a specific physical phenomenon, and that corresponds to a particular group of regions within the brain where the signals are received and interpreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short-lived electrical events called action potentials occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells, a category of cell include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as in some plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological phenomena of action potentials are possible because voltage-gated ion channels allow the resting potential caused by electrochemical gradient on either side of a cell membrane to resolve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 10 8 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. (jove.com)
  • however biotic feedbacks such as plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) have large effects on plant performance, and create environmental heterogeneity that depends on the community composition. (jove.com)
  • Here, we describe a protocol for manipulating plant-induced soil heterogeneity. (jove.com)
  • In addition to desert plants, desert tortoises also consume vulture feces (which contain bones), soil (layers contain calcium), mammal hairs, feathers, arthropods, stones, bones of conspecifics, as well as snake and lizard skin castings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it would be expected that the increased physiological needs of juvenile and gravid female tortoises would also increase mineral demands and promote ingestion of bones, stones, and soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. (jove.com)
  • The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. (jove.com)
  • He wanted to extend the chronophotographic experiments of Étienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) by producing a short film involving the stages of plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinostat is a device which uses rotation to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development (gravimorphism). (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (jove.com)
  • contribution
  • Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • This chamber description represents a useful research tool to effectively produce uniformly or differentially multi-isotope labeled plant material for use in experiments on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling. (jove.com)
  • The technique was invented by Professor Elsayed Elsayed Wagih in collaboration with Professor Jacqueline Fletcher of the Department of Plant Pathology, Noble Research Centre, Oklahoma State University, USA in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was one of the pioneers of plant physiological research in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration of physiological phenomena characterized his research activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • citation needed] Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain these, and there may be several mechanisms underlying the differing phenomena observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • differential
  • Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. (jove.com)
  • studies
  • From 1959 he started with intensive studies on the structure and function of plant viruses and obtained his "Habilitation" from the University of Tuebingen in 1969. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indian Science Congress Association, life member Indian Phytopathological Society, life member Indian Virological Society, fellow Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft Deutsche Virologische Gesellschaft Scientific papers Dutt, M., Sarkar, S. & Dutta, C.T.: Physiological studies on diploid and polyploid varieties of banana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Über Aufnahme und Ausgabe ungelöster Körper - 1890 Studien zur Energetik der Pflanze - 1892 (Studies on the energetics of plants) Druck- und Arbeitsleistung durch wachsende Pflanzen - 1893 Untersuchungen über die Entstehung der Schlafbewegungen der Blattorgane - 1907 Der Einfluss von mechanischer Hemmung und von Belastung auf die Schlafbewegung - 1911 (The influence of mechanical stress on the inhibition of sleep and movement). (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • This level of throughput is made possible by the fact that tissue is harvested from plants 96-at-a-time, rather than one-at-a-time. (jove.com)
  • tissue
  • The first step in any genotyping project is to collect a tissue sample from each individual plant. (jove.com)
  • tropical
  • Pineapple ( Ananas comosus ) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruits, can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, or preserved and is the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • time
  • The traditional approach to this task is to sample plants one-at-a-time. (jove.com)
  • A plant only reacts to gravity if the gravistimulation is maintained for longer than a critical amount of time, called the minimal presentation time (MPT). (wikipedia.org)
  • nature
  • Pringsheim was among the very first to demonstrate the occurrence of a sexual process in this class of plants, and he drew from his observations weighty conclusions as to the nature of sexuality. (wikipedia.org)
  • action
  • In 1902 he demonstrated a link between the action of enterokinase in mobilizing pancreatic digestive enzymes and the phenomena of hemolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Two example experiments are presented: (1) a field experiment with a 6-patch grid of soils to measure plant population responses and (2) a greenhouse experiment with 2-patch soils to measure individual plant responses. (jove.com)
  • The optimal rotational speed has been investigated by comparison to 'true' responses to microgravity as seen in space-grown plants, and determined to be between 0.3 and 3 rpm for most plant systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. (jove.com)
  • development
  • SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBP) perform a variety of regulatory functions in leaf, flower, and fruit development, plant architecture, and sporogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • efficiently
  • Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. (jove.com)
  • importance
  • Understanding the importance of PSF for plant community assembly necessitates understanding of the role of heterogeneity in PSF, in addition to mean PSF effects. (jove.com)
  • The importance of having sufficient amounts of phosphorus further resides in the physiological importance of maintaining a proper phosphorus to calcium ratio. (wikipedia.org)