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  • cells
  • In Cummelina communis L., stomatal opening in isolated epidermis is strongly inhibited if the calcium concentration in the incubation medium is 0.1 mol mol m −3 or greater, It can be assumed that in the intact leaf, the apoplastic concentration of free calcium in the vicinity of the guard cells must be kept below this level if interference with stomatal functioning is to be avoided. (wiley.com)
  • In adults, epidermis-resident progenitor cells adopt their fates to fit the renewal of the epidermis, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland and maintain a homeostasis in normal tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • The undifferentiated cells exhibited self-renewing and multipotent differentiation capacities and gave rise to all component cells of epidermis and hair follicle [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • botany
  • currently Clinical Microbiology Institute, Wilsonville, OR and 2 Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University. (apsnet.org)
  • In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Plant tissues. (uvigo.es)
  • Atlas of plant and animal tissues. (uvigo.es)
  • GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. (jove.com)
  • In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. (jove.com)
  • The apparent rigidity of primary plant tissues is enabled by cell walls, but is not due to the walls' stiffness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of this cell type is to support the plant in axes still growing in length, and to confer flexibility and tensile strength on tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Pythium species cause a variety of diseases including root rots of numerous plant species, Pythium blight of turf, and damping-off , which involves seed rot and pre- and post-emergence seedling death. (apsnet.org)
  • Phytophthora species cause late blight of potato and tomato, foliar blights on peppers and cucurbits, and root or stem rots of many plant species. (apsnet.org)
  • The family Albuginaceae includes Albugo , an obligate parasite that produces a generally mild disease called white rust (not a true rust) on the stems, leaves, and fruit of cruciferous plants such as radish, horseradish, and several weed species. (apsnet.org)
  • Trichomes or hairs grow out from the epidermis in many species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species has sessile glands located on the plant epidermis that are used to absorb nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other species of carnivorous plants, like Cephalotus follicularis, use these glands to secrete enzymes to break down detritus and trap prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metamasius callizona, the weevil, will feed on the meristem tissue of the Catopsis species, which will inevitably kill the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species fruits exclusively on dead or dying standing culms of the saltmarsh plant Juncus roemerianus. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • We explore this question for the characteristic gene expression domains of the plant stem cell niche residing in the shoot apical meristem. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the deformation of the tissue transposes meristem geometry into an instructive scaling and positional input for the apical plant stem cell niche. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we address this question in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the stem cell niche source of all aboveground plant organs ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • All plants experience primary growth , which is the lengthening of both the stem and the roots. (study.com)
  • Arabidopsis
  • It is even not clear if corresponding mRNAs (for example, involved in the biosynthesis of secondary compounds) or their end products (corresponding metabolites) are indeed present in the trichomes of the model Arabidopsis plant. (frontiersin.org)
  • MICROSCOPY
  • After 4 h of bombardment, leaves were inoculated with a high density of Bgh conidiophores and successful entry into the epidermis cells were evaluated with microscopy as described in the Materials and methods. (nih.gov)
  • fungi
  • Glucosinolates (GS) are important plant secondary metabolites in plant resistance to herbivores, bacteria, and fungi, which have been shown to be accumulating in different organs and tissue types at varying concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell wall apposition (CWA) formation is one of the first lines of defence used by plants to halt invading fungi such as powdery mildew. (nih.gov)
  • These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and also parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi are also used as biological pesticides to control weeds, plant diseases and insect pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are mainly immobile, and have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roots
  • Roots also provide structural support and stability for the plant by growing deep into the ground. (study.com)
  • Sometimes just the roots will rot off, but often times the whole plant will turn to mush. (cactiguide.com)
  • Phlomis purpurea roots produce bioactive compounds exhibiting antitumor and anti- Phytophthora activities with potential to protect susceptible plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • absorbs
  • Plastids, the most notable being the chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll, a green-colored pigment that absorbs sunlight, and allows the plant to make its own food in the process known as photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaves
  • Using pMYB51/HIG1-uidA and pMYB28/PMG1/HAG1-uidA reporter plants we demonstrate that production of these important compounds is activated in trichomes of leaves or inflorescences in response to wounding. (frontiersin.org)
  • They mine the leaves of their host plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epidermis of most leaves shows dorsoventral anatomy: the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces have somewhat different construction and may serve different functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some plants like Ficus elastica and Peperomia, which have periclinal cellular division within the protoderm of the leaves, have an epidermis with multiple cell layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catopsis berteroniana is an epiphytic insectivorous plant with elongate leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This powder is released from the leaves of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] "Wax" that has washed off the leaves also coats the ground around the base of the plant, further preventing evaporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • root
  • You may not have known it at the time, but what you ate was actually the root of a plant. (study.com)
  • According to Fish, 1976, plants have moved away from root absorption in relation to adaptations and moved toward foliar procurement and nutrient absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • penetration
  • RNAi-mediated transient gene silencing in the epidermis led to a higher penetration efficiency of Bgt than in the controls. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • The de novo assembly of transcriptome using short reads for a non-model plant, P. purpurea , revealed many unique transcripts useful for further gene expression, biological function, genomics and functional genomics studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cactus
  • South-facing windows (North-facing in the southern hemisphere) with no obstructions can give a cactus enough light to prevent etiolation, but even the brightest window in a house still does not capture as much light as the plant would like. (cactiguide.com)
  • New cactus growers may not know what normal growth should look like or may have inherited a plant that is already etiolated. (cactiguide.com)
  • The images here demonstrate typical etiolation on cactus plants. (cactiguide.com)
  • Algae
  • Cell division by construction of a phragmoplast as a template for building a cell plate late in cytokinesis is characteristic of land plants and a few groups of algae, notably the Charophytes and the Chlorophyte Order Trentepohliales. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • This knowledge opens new perspectives for the understanding of defence responses underlying pathogenic oomycete/plant interaction upon challenge with P. cinnamomi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8000 of them are detrimental to plants and 300 can be pathogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • symplast
  • In 1930, Ernst Münch coined the term apoplast in order to separate the "living" symplast from the "dead" plant region, the latter of which included the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • It is not until the fungus moves to the teleomorph phase of the lifecycle and begins to produce fruiting bodies that host plants will begin to exhibit symptoms, often on plants depleted in energy after the stress of pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • Differential expression patterns were found for these genes in susceptible and resistant plants after infection. (nih.gov)
  • Genes
  • Thirteen cDNAs representing eight genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis were cloned from an expression sequence tag (EST) library derived from the epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. (nih.gov)
  • Using Illumina technology we obtained a de novo assembly of P. purpurea transcriptome and differential transcript abundance to identify putative defence related genes in challenged versus non-challenged plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • peroxidase
  • The three isolates were differentiated using Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA), woody indicator plants, differential hosts, peroxidase isozymes and activity, total RNA content and Reserves Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • veins
  • Turbinicarpus species are usually confined to specific habitats, generally hostile for the majority of plants, mostly in very drained rocky areas, composed of limestone, sandstone, schist (neutral or alkaline), or in very acidic and humiferous understorey, or in gypsum veins, sometimes so pure that they are almost white. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • l -Ara, an important constituent of plant cell walls, is found predominantly in the furanose rather than in the thermodynamically more stable pyranose form. (plantcell.org)
  • soil
  • These succulent plants grow mostly on limestone soil (never on volcanic soil), at altitudes between 300 and 3300 metres above sea level. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell wall
  • Examination of cell wall polysaccharide preparations from RGP1 and RGP2 knockout mutants showed a significant reduction in total l -Ara content (12-31%) compared with wild-type plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Concomitant downregulation of RGP1 and RGP2 expression results in plants almost completely deficient in cell wall-derived l -Ara and exhibiting severe developmental defects. (plantcell.org)
  • Yet, only recently was the conversion of l -arabinopyranose (Ara p ) into l -arabinofuranose (Ara f ) during plant cell wall polysaccharide synthesis characterized. (plantcell.org)
  • normal
  • A very few variegated plants sprout unpredictably time by time among normal green seedling and are very rare. (llifle.com)
  • skin
  • Skin disease caused by over-exposure of the epidermis to thermal and ultraviolet radiation. (ditl.org)
  • disease
  • This plant disease is caused by Endocronartium harknessii (asexual name is Peridermium harknessii), an autoecious, endocyclic, rust fungus that grows in the vascular cambium of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • the of rib tips (bearing the line of areoles) are more or less deeply seated within the plants body, while the suture line between the ribs is turned outward and more or less expanded creating odd and unique shapes. (llifle.com)
  • primary
  • After penetration and establishment of a intracellular infection structure, primary hyphae are produced, infecting the epidermis and cortex intercellularly. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Scientific studies have established that the medicinal properties and biological activities of Kacip Fatimah are due to the presence of phyto-estrogen (plant estrogen) that is naturally found in the plant. (blogspot.com)