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  • secretion
  • Studies have shown that stress-induced activation of the noradrenergic prefrontal lobe system may be under the control of both endogenously released corticotrophin-releasing hormone and SP and neurokinin A. This study directly links the secretion of neurokinin A and SP to certain forms of depression characterized by the corticoid receptor hypothesis of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Petrova V.A., Malyshev V.V., Manukhin B.N., Meerson F.Z., Limiting stress activation of the adrenergic and pituitary-adrenal systems by alpha-tocopherol, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1985, vol: 31(6), 115-118. (msk.ru)
  • At baseline there was corresponding activation of the HPA and noradrenergic systems, with apparent elevation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in some patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has various roles in the body of humans and other animals, specifically stimulation of extravascular smooth muscle, vasodilation, hypertensive action, immune system activation, and pain management. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Despite the well documented role of the brain in regulating whole body metabolism, the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation to muscle atrophy has not been examined. (rupress.org)
  • posterior
  • Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amastatin, bestatin (ubenimex), leupeptin, and puromycin have been found to inhibit the enzymatic degradation of oxytocin, though they also inhibit the degradation of various other peptides, such as vasopressin, met-enkephalin, and dynorphin A. In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • Previously, we demonstrated a pronounced inhibitory effect of vasopressin (VP), released from SCN terminals in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, on the release of the adrenal hormone corticosterone. (jneurosci.org)
  • The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • thymus
  • Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C. Oxytocin is known to be metabolized by the oxytocinase, leucyl/cystinyl aminopeptidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • atrophy
  • We demonstrate that central nervous system (CNS)-delimited interleukin 1β (IL-1β) signaling alone can evoke a catabolic program in muscle, rapidly inducing atrophy. (rupress.org)
  • physiological
  • Neither the underlying mechanisms nor the physiological significance of this system are fully understood yet. (physiomeproject.org)
  • Tachykinins thus have a number of neuroprotective physiological roles in medical conditions The immune system is a highly integrated system which receives input from many sources, such as sites of injury, nocireceptors and white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • In the autonomic system it is produced mainly by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and serves as a strong vasoconstrictor and also causes growth of fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the enteric nervous system includes efferent neurons, afferent neurons, and interneurons, all of which make the enteric nervous system capable of carrying reflexes in the absence of CNS input. (wikipedia.org)
  • A feedback system is meant here in which the cerebral hemispheres, the integrating organ for the entire central nervous system,[page needed][page needed] control the ATP concentration (adenosine-triposphate - a form of energy currency for the organism) of the neurons (see 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mathematical
  • ABSTRACT: Mathematical modeling has proven to be valuable in understanding of the complex biological systems dynamics. (physiomeproject.org)
  • 5000 published data records from classical endocrinology-diabetology and the modern neurosciences, but argued from both a mathematical standpoint using differential equations, and from a system theoretical standpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • The "glucostatic theory" developed in the same year by Jean Mayer describes the blood glucose feedback system. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is new is that the "Selfish Brain" theory assumes there is another feedback control system that is supraordinate to the blood glucose and fat feedback control systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "Energy on demand" system for energy supply to the brain is seen as a supraordinate instance of this setup, which exerts control over the organs that regulate the blood sugar and fat feedback loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon vitamin C (ascorbate), which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • It normally communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through the parasympathetic (e.g., via the vagus nerve) and sympathetic (e.g., via the prevertebral ganglia) nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, vertebrate studies show that when the vagus nerve is severed, the enteric nervous system continues to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cerebral hemispheres, the integrating organ of the entire central nervous system, the theory introduces a feedback loop of an "Energy on Demand" system that keeps the ATP concentration in the nerve cells of the brain at an appropriate level. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous
  • The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has a number of biologic activities, including pronounced effects on the nervous and neuroendocrine systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • NPY has been identified as the most abundant peptide present in the mammalian central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system can operate autonomously. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system also makes use of more than 30 neurotransmitters, most of which are identical to the ones found in CNS, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although he considered that food intake served to safeguard the energy homoeostasis of the central nervous system, he did imply that the energy flux from the body to the brain was a passive process. (wikipedia.org)
  • feedback
  • On the basis of these theories a number of international research groups still position the origin of obesity in a disorder in one of the two above described feedback systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • steroids
  • Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the subset includes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (A4), and androstenediol (A5). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute stress, a more common form of stress, results in the release of adrenal steroids resulting in impaired short-term and working memory processes such as selective attention, memory consolidation, as well as long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes the excitation of the nerves that innervate the skeletal muscles along with the muscles surrounding certain bodily systems such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, causing an increase in force production by the skeletal muscles along with accelerated heart rate and breathing rate, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This elevation occurs as a result of the compression of the pituitary stalk, which interferes with the brain's control of prolactin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium that are evident on an x-ray. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • This system originates in several areas of the brain and is responsible for releasing neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) that regulate stress, mood and appetite. (healthyplace.com)
  • levels
  • Because of this, the sympathoadrenal system plays a large role in maintaining glucose levels, sodium levels, blood pressure, and various other metabolic pathways that couple with bodily responses to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Activation of these systems also accelerates the progress of atherosclerosis and can lead to acute plaque rupture, which results in ischemia of the heart (angina) and coronary heart disease and stroke. (tm.org)
  • effects
  • However, the finding that cereblon inhibition is responsible for the teratogenic activity of thalidomide in the chick and zebrafish was cast into doubt due to a 2013 report that pomalidomide (a more potent thalidomide analog) does not cause teratogenic effects in these same model systems even though it is a stronger cereblon inhibitor than thalidomide is. (wikipedia.org)