Loading...
  • auditory perception
  • To answer these and similar questions, we examine the relationship between the physical variables of musical instruments, such as the length, mass, and tension of a string, and the variables of auditory perception , such as pitch, timbre, and loudness. (springer.com)
  • Every time we listen-to speech, to music, to footsteps approaching or retreating-our auditory perception is the result of a long chain of diverse and intricate processes that unfold within the source of the sound itself, in the air, in our ears, and, most of all, in our brains. (mit.edu)
  • Auditory perception. (mit.edu)
  • More generally, schemes that base attributes of auditory perception on the neural firing rate as a function of place are known as rate-place schemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectral
  • In his model, Terhardt claims that the spectral-analysis output of complex sounds, specifically low frequency ones, is a learned entity which eventually allows easy identification of the virtual pitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complex tone composed of two sine waves of 1000 and 1200 Hz may sometimes be heard as up to three pitches: two spectral pitches at 1000 and 1200 Hz, derived from the physical frequencies of the pure tones, and the combination tone at 200 Hz, corresponding to the repetition rate of the waveform. (wikipedia.org)
  • tones
  • When Mandarin listeners discriminated pitch embedded in Mandarin lexical tones, the left anterior insular cortex was the most active. (jneurosci.org)
  • Such pitch patterns, called lexical tones, are present in most languages of the world ( Fromkin, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The discussion reveals that there are three acoustic properties of musical sounds, as they occur in the air, between the instrument and the listener, that are particularly useful in summarizing the effects of the physical properties on the musical tones they produce, and in explaining how these musical tones produce the perceptions that we hear. (springer.com)
  • Pitches are usually associated with, and thus quantified as frequencies in cycles per second, or hertz, by comparing sounds with pure tones, which have periodic, sinusoidal waveforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pitch of complex tones can be ambiguous, meaning that two or more different pitches can be perceived, depending upon the observer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pitch of lower tones gets lower as sound pressure increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As structuralism gave way to Gestalt psychology and behaviorism at the turn of the century, music psychology moved beyond the study of isolated tones and elements to the perception of their inter-relationships and human reactions to them, though work languished behind that of visual perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • octave
  • The result is a pitch at a common subharmonic of the pitches played (one octave below the first pitch when the second is the fifth, 3:2, two octaves below when the second is the major third, 5:4). (wikipedia.org)
  • cochlear
  • Pitch perception by cochlear implant subjects. (lww.com)
  • The two stimulus parameters can, however, be controlled independently using cochlear implants: pulses with a range of rates can be applied via different pairs of electrodes distributed along the membrane and subjects can be asked to rate a stimulus on a pitch scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory
  • By this theory, the pitch of a sound, such as a human voice or a musical tone, is determined by the places where the membrane vibrates, based on frequencies corresponding to the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, in this theory, the pitch of a pure tone is determined by the period of neuron firing patterns-either of single neurons, or groups as described by the volley theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, it contributes to music theory through investigations of the perception and computational modelling of musical structures such as melody, harmony, tonality, rhythm, meter, and form. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • A place code, taking advantage of the tonotopy in the auditory system, must be in effect for the perception of high frequencies, since neurons have an upper limit on how fast they can phase-lock their action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • depends
  • The development of musical competence most likely depends on the encoding of pitch along musical scales and maintaining a regular pulse, both of which are key components in the structure of music and aid in perception, memory, and performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • listeners
  • This algorithm has successfully been able to model the perception of musical key in short excerpts of music, as well as to track listeners' changing sense of key movement throughout an entire piece of music. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, listeners with excellent pitch perception may notice and be annoyed by even these small pitch errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pitch correction circuitry is frequently a proprietary design, due to the difficulty in performing correction so the errors are imperceptible to critical listeners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex
  • Complex and aperiodic sound waves can often be assigned a pitch by this method. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, the pitch of complex sounds such as speech and musical notes corresponds very nearly to the repetition rate of periodic or nearly-periodic sounds, or to the reciprocal of the time interval between repeating similar events in the sound waveform. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the pitches of the components of a complex tone," W.M. Hartmann and S.L. Doty, J. Acoust. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe Géza Révész and Albert Wellek developed a more complex understanding of musical pitch, and in the US the focus shifted to that of music education and the training and development of musical skill. (wikipedia.org)
  • sound
  • The ability to perceive the sound quality known as "pitch" can no longer be listed as unique to humans. (jhu.edu)
  • In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound can also be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pitch is each person's subjective perception of a sound wave, which cannot be directly measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the American National Standards Institute, pitch is the auditory attribute of sound according to which sounds can be ordered on a scale from low to high. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite that, the idiom relating vertical height to sound pitch is shared by most languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Above 2,000 Hz, the pitch gets higher as the sound gets louder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a resultant tone for such low pitches would eliminate the cost and space factor, but would not sound as full as a true 64' pipe. (wikipedia.org)
  • musical
  • However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. (frontiersin.org)
  • When identifying musical intervals, most musicians appear to use only one strategy: they directly evaluate the musical interval between two notes (relative-pitch strategy). (ucpress.edu)
  • This study investigates the perception of sequential musical intervals by two groups of musicians, one group with AP and the other without AP. (ucpress.edu)
  • It seems that musicians with AP do not use this ability in the identification of sequential musical intervals, relying instead on their sense of relative pitch. (ucpress.edu)
  • Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch but also encompasses musical memory and recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also worked together with Hans Guenter Dosch and others on the physics and neurophysiology of the early processing of central musical quantities in the brain, like tone pitch and tone spectrum (he plays piano since childhood). (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact etymological history of the musical sense of high and low pitch is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the 1960s the field grew along with cognitive science, including such research areas as music perception (particularly of pitch, rhythm, harmony, and melody), musical development and aptitude, music performance, and affective responses to music. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cognitive neuroscientist specializing in music perception and cognition, he is credited for fundamentally changing the way that scientists think about auditory memory, showing through the Levitin Effect, that long-term memory preserves many of the details of musical experience that previous theorists regarded as lost during the encoding process. (wikipedia.org)
  • tonal
  • Furthermore, brain damage can disrupt an individual's ability to tell the difference between tonal and atonal music and detect the presence of wrong notes, but can preserve the individual's ability to assess the distance between pitches and the direction of the pitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opposite scenario can also occur, in which the individual loses pitch discrimination capabilities, but can sense and appreciate the tonal context of the work. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Together, these studies provide evidence for the functional hypothesis, because the brain area engaged is determined by the psychological function of pitch. (jneurosci.org)
  • Building on Dr. Wang's previous research previous research that revealed regions in the marmoset brain responded to pitch in a way similar to that the human brain, the research team focused on finding behavioral evidence of pitch perception. (jhu.edu)
  • Helmholtz claimed that the cochlea contained individual fibers for analyzing each pitch and delivering that information to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • For example, in Mandarin Chinese, the syllable /ma/ spoken in a high pitch means "mother," but the same syllable spoken with a falling pitch pattern means "to scold. (jneurosci.org)
  • That is, "high" pitch means very rapid oscillation, and "low" pitch corresponds to slower oscillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Through a series of hearing tests, with waterspout licks as a readout, Wang's team, led by graduate student Xindong Song, determined that marmosets share the three specialized features of pitch perception once thought to be unique to humans. (jhu.edu)
  • Experiments
  • Experiments using implant recipients showed that, at low stimulation rates, ratings of pitch on a pitch scale were proportional to the log of stimulation rate, but also decreased with distance from the round window. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments using implant recipients (who had previously had normal hearing) showed that, at stimulation rates below about 500 Hz, ratings on a pitch scale were proportional to the log of stimulation rate, but also decreased with distance from the round window. (wikipedia.org)
  • music
  • In addition to being a major component of music and vocalizations in many species, pitch conveys information about several aspects of spoken human language, including speaker identity, affect, intonation, phonemic stress, and word meaning. (jneurosci.org)
  • Enter your Music Perception username. (ucpress.edu)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Music Perception. (ucpress.edu)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Music Perception web site. (ucpress.edu)
  • Pitch perception is absolutely crucial to processing music. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was an associate editor of Music Perception from 1988-1997, and he is currently the editor-in-chief of the Springer series Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important early dissenter was Aristoxenus, who foreshadowed modern music psychology in his view that music could only be understood through human perception and its relation to human memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • His pitch perception research is characterized by an unusual emphasis on tonotopically local effects such as pitch shifts, presumably originating in the auditory periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Vincenzo Galilei (father of Galileo) demonstrated that, when string length was held constant, varying its tension, thickness, or composition could alter perceived pitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • slower
  • For example, reading faster than writing causes the audio pitch to increase and reading slower than writing causes the pitch to decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loud
  • For instance, a tone of 200 Hz that is very loud seems one semitone lower in pitch than if it is just barely audible. (wikipedia.org)
  • tone
  • However, all previous imaging studies of lexical tone perception possess a potentially serious confound of lexical tone processing and semantic processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • This design permitted a comparison of lexical tone processing and nonlexical pitch processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • The pitch of a pure tone could then be seen as corresponding to the difference between adjacent gaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the interference of two pitches can often be heard as a repetitive variation in volume of the tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • Pitch errors in lower performance devices are uncompensated and kept to a level generally not perceived by the average viewer, by limiting the amount of change of reading speed. (wikipedia.org)
  • rate
  • In higher performance audio synchronizers, the rate of delay change is allowed to be much faster, generally in the order of 25%, and the resulting pitch error is corrected with a pitch correction circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive
  • Tenney is the author of Meta (+) Hodos, one of, if not the, earliest applications of gestalt theory and cognitive science to music, and later "Hierarchical temporal gestalt perception in music: a metric space model" with Larry Polansky, and other works, the influence of may be seen in many of his pieces including the twelve-minute For Ann (rising). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zaki suggests that there are two social cognitive processes involved in our perceptions of social cues, which are experience sharing and mentalizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • auditory
  • Perception of a complex auditory scene is based on the ability of the brain to group those sound components that belong to the same source, and to segregate them from those belonging to different sources. (jneurosci.org)
  • Diplacusis, also known as diplacusis binauralis , "binauralis disharmonica "or inter aural pitch difference (IPD) is a type of hearing disorder that is the perception of a single auditory stimulus as two separate sounds which may differ in pitch or in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • accent
  • Linguists became increasingly interested in how non-linguists distinguish between language varieties, including the fact that pitch accent is one of the major ways that non-linguists distinguish between varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • somewhat
  • The first Test was played on a pitch that was slow and somewhat irregular in behaviour, and the commentators were optimistic that the second Test would lead to more attractive batting, particularly from the Indians, who had amassed 7/705 and 2/211 in their previous outing in 2003-04. (wikipedia.org)
  • heavily
  • The resulting tone relies heavily on overtones for its perception, but in the hands of a skilled player, pedal tones can be controlled and can sound characteristic to the instrument. (wikipedia.org)
  • While praises poured in from many people, singer Pradip Somasundaran criticised the jury's selection, terming the song as having been heavily modified through use of pitch correction software. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • However, a Hasidic aphorism describes a known Rebbe Tzadik as being among the 36, as their true greatness could be concealed beyond the perception of their devoted followers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal objective of Mission XI Million was to create a change of perception among the school communities in India that football can be played at any place, any surface and by any number of kids, contrary to the belief in a large number of areas of the country that only full sized pitch and 11vs11 matches can be football. (wikipedia.org)
  • game
  • The objective of the seminar was to change in all the administrators the perception of football as only an 11vs11 game that could only be played in massive fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • Common topics in the study of perceptual dialectology include the comparison of folk perceptions of dialect boundaries with traditional linguistic definitions, the examination of what factors influence folk perceptions of variation, and what social characteristics individuals attribute to various dialects. (wikipedia.org)
  • original
  • Villainous has garnered very positive reception on Cartoon Network's online platforms, leading CN to decide to continue their own "Pitch Me" competition through at least 2017 in an aim to find more web original shows. (wikipedia.org)
  • experience
  • At the spaceport she meets a vital older man who uses perfect pitch, and his occupational experience as a "crystal singer" on Ballybran, to identify an incoming space shuttle on the verge of explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • amount
  • a given person will consistently mismatch these sinusoids the same amount between trials if doing a pitch-matching task. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bell significantly raises all pitches in the series, and the mouthpiece limits the amount to which higher harmonics are raised. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • A key question is whether more kids are being labeled with autism today due to a true increase of the disorder or whether factors such as greater awareness by doctors and the public, a broader definition of it, better diagnostic instruments, and changes in diagnostic criteria are contributing to this perception. (blogspot.com)
  • Business plans may target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, taxpayer, or larger community. (wikipedia.org)
  • ability
  • Killashandra's ability to sing perfect pitch meets one qualification, she knows, and she passes other qualifying exams in the staging area on Ballybran's moon. (wikipedia.org)