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  • absorb
  • Randomly arranged, inhomogeneous media containing pigments are colored, because the pigments absorb the diffusely scattered light in a restricted wavelength range. (pnas.org)
  • Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pigments in photoreceptor proteins either change their conformation or undergo photoreduction when they absorb a photon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the inorganic pigments such as vermilion (mercury sulfide) or cadmium yellow (cadmium sulfide) absorb light by transferring an electron from the negative ion (S2−) to the positive ion (Hg2+ or Cd2+). (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • The fringelite pigments, a group of phenanthroperylene quinones discovered in purple coloured specimens of the Upper Jurassic crinoid Liliocrinus , demonstrate exceptional preservation of organic compounds in macrofossils. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic, organic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds the light is absorbed by the conjugated systems of double bonds in the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic matter: Organics formed by biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seasonal changes in the abundance and composition of plant pigments in particulate organic carbon in the lower Mississippi and Pearl Rivers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Bilin (also called bilichrome) was named as a bile pigment of mammals, but can also be found in lower vertebrates, invertebrates, as well as red algae, green plants and cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Our 'biophotosensor' is based on the purplish bacteriorhodopsin (bR) pigment found in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarum , 1 a bacterium that thrives in extremely high salt concentrations. (spie.org)
  • A 'micromouse' robot with two biophotosensors (dotted circle) based on the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) pigment found in the microorganism Halobacterium salinarum. (spie.org)
  • X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They include pigments such as those found in beets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particular shades of red to purple are distinctive and unlike that of anthocyanin pigments found in most plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Monascus pigments were discovered in the extracts of two closely related species of Penicillium that were only distantly related to the genus Monascus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, the present study brought out two novel promising sources of yellow, orange, and purple-red Monascus-like food pigments in the species of Penicillia that do not produce citrinin and opened the door to look for several more new promising sources of natural food colorants in the species of Penicillia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • fungi
  • In the present study, we screened for novel producers of Monascus-like pigments from ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium that are not reported to produce citrinin or any other known mycotoxins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Related biological pigments are present in other fungi, such as calostomal (from Calostoma cinnabarinum), melanocrocin (from Melanogaster broomeianus), and mycenaaruin A (from Mycena aurantiomarginata). (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas
  • Whereas the biological purpose of the colorful displays is relatively well understood ( 1 , 2 ), the coloration mechanisms of the birds' displays and the connection to the visual system of the animals are poorly explored. (pnas.org)
  • tissues
  • In some cases (Type I), pigments are excreted through urine or deposited in hard tissues such as bones and teeth, causing discolouration. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • Scientists from the caesar research center, an Institute of the Max Planck Society, have explained, with the help of electron microscopy, how the pigment. (innovations-report.com)
  • cells
  • We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In spiders, ommochromes are usually deposited as pigment granules within the cells of the hypodermis, immediately beneath the cuticle. (wikipedia.org)
  • light
  • Algal phototrophs such as dinoflagellates use peridinin as a light harvesting pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Photosynthetic pigment (converting light into biochemical energy). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure pigment allows very little white light to escape, producing a highly saturated color. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder, however, will appear desaturated and pale, due to the high quantity of escaping white light. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is significant because all oxygenic phototrophs have a particular risk of oxidative damage initiated by singlet oxygen (1O2), which is produced when their own light-harvesting pigments act as photosensitizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The algorithm searched for the most similar UV-vis spectra of the metabolites (cross hits) present in the pigment extracts to those of the selected reference metabolites viz. (biomedsearch.com)
  • characteristic
  • The common presence of a characteristic distribution pattern of the fossil pigments and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons further suggests that this assemblage is the result of a stepwise degradation of hypericin via a general diagenetic pathway. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Albino animals have characteristic pink or red eyes because the lack of pigment in the iris allows the blood vessels of the retina to be visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Categories In general, biosignatures and habitable environment signatures can be grouped into ten broad categories: Stable isotope patterns: Isotopic evidence or patterns that require biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the mutant cell produces no detectable red pigment compared to the parent Bacillus cell when cultured under identical conditions. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • volatile
  • 1.The Rapeseed oil refining equipment is u sed for removing the impurities of oil, such as, fatty acid, phosphatide, metal ion, pigment, oxide, solid particle and volatile gas. (europebyair.com)
  • Cell
  • Experimental chimeras have been used to study a number of biological questions, including the origin and fate of cell lineages during embryonic development, immunological self-tolerance, tumor susceptibility, and the nature of malignancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The production of this pigment in Haematococcus Pluvialis is enhanced due to various environmental stresses which limit the growth of the cell under light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • and examining the possible role of the pigment in protecting the cell from oxidative stress damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)