• organism
  • It is the living organism as a whole that contributes (or not) to the next generation, so natural selection affects the genetic structure of a population indirectly via the contribution of phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that early-life metabolic adaptations help in survival of the organism by selecting an appropriate trajectory of growth in response to environmental cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, some scientists have proposed that the thrifty phenotype prepares the organism for its likely adult environment in long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main idea is that phenotype should not be limited to biological processes such as protein biosynthesis or tissue growth, but extended to include all effects that a gene has on its environment, inside or outside the body of the individual organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dawkins summarizes these ideas in what he terms the Central Theorem of the Extended Phenotype: In conducting this argument, Dawkins aims to strengthen the case for a gene-centric view of life, to the point where it is recognized that the organism itself needs to be explained. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of extended phenotype has been generalized in an organism-centered view of evolution with the concept of niche construction, in the case where natural selection pressures can be modified by the organisms during the evolutionary process. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there is little plasticity, the phenotype of an organism can be reliably predicted from knowledge of the genotype, regardless of environmental peculiarities during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phenotype is said to be canalized if mutations (changes in the genome) do not noticeably affect the physical properties of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Search by «Any study term» provides results for phenotype terms through the studies having common genes knocked down. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Just as DNA microarrays and proteomic technologies have made it possible to assay the level of thousands of genes or proteins all a once, phenotype microarrays (PMs) make it possible to quantitatively measure thousands of cellular phenotypes all at once. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can include, among other details, how many genes are involved in a specific phenotype and how gene interactions, such as epistasis, influence that phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesis
  • The thrifty phenotype hypothesis says that reduced fetal growth is strongly associated with a number of chronic conditions later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thrifty phenotype is a component of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current hypothesis regarding congenital heart defect phenotypes in Down Syndrome individuals is that three copies of functional genomic elements on chromosome 21 and genetic variation of chromosome 21 and non-chromosome 21 loci predispose patients to abnormal heart development. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • Either way, the term phenotype includes traits or characteristics that can be made visible by some technical procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic characteristics of rhabdoid cells include: Oval to polygonal cell shape Eosinophilic, hyaline-like perinuclear agglomerations of intermediate filaments Compressed, eccentric nuclei Prominent central macronucleoli (one or two) Abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Reticular chromatin pattern The differential diagnosis of LCLC-RP includes secondary metastatic lesions, melignant melanoma of the lung with rhabdoid phenotype, mucinous adenocarcinomas (particularly those featuring signet-ring cells), rhabdomyosarcoma, epitheloid angiosarcoma, pleural mesothelioma, and plasmacytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The information that enters offspring phenotype during early development mirror the mother's own developmental experience and the quality of the environment during her own maturation rather than predicting the possible future environment of the offspring Many human diseases in adulthood are related to growth patterns during early life, determining early-life nutrition as the underlying mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, the thrifty phenotype should be considered as the capacity of all offspring to respond to environmental cues during early ontogenetic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, the thrifty phenotype can be described as a manipulation of offspring phenotype for the benefit of maternal fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with a thrifty phenotype who actually develop in an affluent environment may be more prone to metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type II diabetes, whereas those who have received a positive maternal forecast will be adapted to good conditions and therefore better able to cope with rich diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, to properly understand the theory of evolution via natural selection, one must understand the genotype-phenotype distinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals
  • Individuals with a thrifty phenotype will have "a smaller body size, a lowered metabolic rate and a reduced level of behavioural activity… adaptations to an environment that is chronically short of food" (Bateson & Martin, 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • Proprietary and commercially available software is available that provides a solution for storage, retrieval, and analysis of high throughput phenotype data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other software tools are PheMaDB, which provides a solution for storage, retrieval, and analysis of high throughput phenotype data, and the PMViewer software which focuses on graphical display but does not enable further statistical analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Phenotype mixing is a form of interaction between two virus particles, each of which holds its own unique genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third form of extended phenotype is action at a distance of the parasite on its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large cell lung carcinoma with rhabdoid phenotype (LCLC-RP) is a rare histological form of lung cancer, currently classified as a variant of large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • These behavioural modifications are not physically associated with the host but influence the expression of its behavioural phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • determine
  • These habitats alternate along the coast of Sweden and the habitat that the seeds of Hieracium umbellatum land in, determine the phenotype that grows. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • One famous example of this second type of extended phenotype is the suicidal drowning of crickets infected by hairworm, a behaviour that is essential to the parasite's reproductive cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic. (wikipedia.org)
  • in many organisms these phenotypes are very different under varying environmental conditions (see ecophenotypic variation). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In order for a LCLC to be subclassified as the rhabdoid phenotype variant, at least 10% of the malignant tumor cells must contain distinctive structures composed of tangled intermediate filaments that displace the cell nucleus outward toward the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Proponents of this idea say that in poor nutritional conditions, a pregnant woman can modify the development of her unborn child such that it will be prepared for survival in an environment in which resources are likely to be short, resulting in a thrifty phenotype (Hales & Barker, 1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • An organism's genotype is a major (the largest by far for morphology) influencing factor in the development of its phenotype, but it is not the only one. (wikipedia.org)
  • T1 represents the genetic and epigenetic laws, the aspects of functional biology, or development, that transform a genotype into phenotype. (wikipedia.org)