• 1980s
  • Since the 1980s, pertussis notifications in the United States have been increasing. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of side effects of WCV, such as high rates of fever and local reactions, and variable efficacy of WCVs, a less reactogenic acellular vaccine (ACV) was developed in the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
  • strains
  • A number of studies have documented the circulation of strains with allelic variants that differ from those of the vaccine strain (van Loo et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2010). A recent study based on whole-genome analyses evaluated B. pertussis strains recovered worldwide, though no Brazilian strain was included. (fiocruz.br)
  • 2014). Although there has been a lack of characterisation of strains circulating in Brazil, pertussis has also reemerged in this country. (fiocruz.br)
  • populations
  • In the 1990s, pertussis reemerged even in countries with highly vaccinated populations and it is currently the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease, representing a public health threat even in developed countries (Hartzell & Blaylock 2014). (fiocruz.br)
  • immunization
  • The need for a single childhood immunization schedule prompted the unification of previous vaccine recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1988, the U.S. childhood immunization schedule has rapidly expanded to accommodate the introduction of new, universally recommended vaccines (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • For approximately 30 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) -- the two groups responsible for developing vaccine recommendations for the public and private sectors -- worked to develop similar schedules for routine childhood vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Representatives from state immunization programs, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, and vaccine manufacturers also participated. (cdc.gov)
  • increase
  • emergence and predominance of the fim3B allele was the only molecular characteristic associated with the increase in pertussis notifications. (cdc.gov)
  • disease
  • A putative metallo-β-lactamase gene presenting all of the conserved zinc-binding motifs that characterise the catalytic site was identified, in addition to a multidrug efflux pump of the RND family that could confer resistance to erythromycin, which is the antibiotic of choice for treating pertussis disease. (fiocruz.br)
  • report
  • Practitioners should consult the Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (Red Book) (2), the vaccine-specific recommendations of ACIP, and the official manufacturers' package inserts or the Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) (7) for detailed information and specific recommendations for administration of vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • multiple
  • These findings suggest that B. pertussis not expressing prn arose independently multiple times since 2008, rather than by expansion of a single prn-negative clone. (cdc.gov)