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  • 2001
  • Historically, they have been most commonly divided by the stage of maturation at which the clonal (neoplastic) lymphoid population stopped maturing: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia However, the influential WHO Classification (published in 2001) emphasized a greater emphasis on cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoma
  • Aggressive mantle cell lymphoma in first complete remission. (knowcancer.com)
  • PCL is histologically characterized by a mostly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (springer.com)
  • Primary cardiac diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiography-guided transvenous biopsy. (springer.com)
  • Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease and Hodgkin's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indications for microtransplantation are as follows: Hematologic Malignancies Tumors Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) Intermediate- or high-risk Non-Hodgkin lymphoma High-risk Hodgkin lymphoma Multiplemyeloma (MM) Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) The cells employed are allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), is a subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is defined as a diverse group of aggressive lymphomas that develop from mature-stage white blood cells called T-cells and natural killer cells (NK cells) (see figure for an overview of PTCL subtypes). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two morphologic variants: the T-zone lymphoma variant and the lymphoepithelioid cell variant. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-zone lymphoma is so named for its involvement in a specific area of the lymph node that consists of a dense accumulation of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now understood that PTCL behaves differently from B-cell lymphomas and therapies are being developed that specifically target these types of lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current and future aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma treatment paradigms, biological features and therapeutic molecular targets" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytologic findings of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) with high epitheloid cell content (Lennert's lymphoma) in imprint smear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lymphocytic leukemias are closely related to lymphomas of the lymphocytes, to the point that some of them are unitary disease entities that can be called by either name (for example, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types include: Large granular lymphocytic leukemia Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia In practice, it can be hard to distinguish T-cell leukemia from T-cell lymphoma, and they are often grouped together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukemia
  • 1988) Early lympho-hemopoietic recovery after autografting using peripheral blood stem cells in acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Led by Dr. Huisheng Ai and his medical team at MST International Clinic for Leukemia in the 307th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army located in Beijing, multicenter collaborative study on Microtransplantation has started since 2013 in 9 authoritative blood institutes from China, Duke University and Keck School of Medicine-University of Southern California in United States, University of Sydney in Australia and University of Montreal in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, lymphoid leukemias can also be divided by the type of cells affected: B-cell leukemia T-cell leukemia NK-cell leukemia The most common type of lymphoid leukemia is B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemia which affect B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other types include (with ICD-O code): 9826/3 - Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, mature B-cell type 9833/3 - B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia 9940/3 - Hairy cell leukemia T-cell leukemia describes several different types of lymphoid leukemias which affect T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common T-cell leukemia is precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its morphology is identical to that of precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) is a lymphoid leukemia that is a deficiency NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The requirements for diagnosing ANKL are as follows: Immature-looking NK cells Certain immunophenotypes Germline configuration genes: TCR-β and IgH Restricted cytotoxicity The T-cell receptor (TCR) is an important factor when ANKL is being diagnosed along with T-cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is used in pediatrics for children with relapsed lymphoid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem when using NK cells in order to fight off lymphoid leukemia is the fact that it is hard to amount enough of them to be effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • mesenchymal stem
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in multiple human adult tissues including bone marrow, synovial tissues, and adipose tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent research demonstrates that articular cartilage may be able to be repaired via percutaneous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's). (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example, a PubMed search for the year 1999 reveals about 90 papers published under the MESH heading of "Mesenchymal Stem Cells", the same search ran for the year 2007 reveals more than 4,000 entries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate cartilage has been primarily in research with animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the use of cultured mesenchymal stem cells has shown promising results, a more recent study using uncultured MSC's has resulted in full thickness, histologically confirmed hyaline cartilage regrowth. (wikipedia.org)
  • apheresis
  • After collecting PBSCs-more than 2×10 6 CD34+ cells/kg-by apheresis, CD34+ cells were immunologically selected and cryopreserved. (bmj.com)
  • engraftment
  • Once these MSCs are ready for re-implanation, they are usually transferred with growth factors to allow for continued cell growth and engraftment to the damaged tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid
  • Lymphoid leukemias - also called lymphocytic, lymphogenous, or lymphoblastic leukemias - are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most lymphoid leukemias involve a particular subtype of lymphocytes, the B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The WM spectrum of dysplasias differs from other spectrums of plasma cell dyscrasias in that it involves not only aberrant plasma cells but also aberrant lymphoplasmacytoid cells and that it involves IgM while other plasma dyscrasias involve other antibody isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomarker
  • The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. (jove.com)
  • epigenetic
  • In addition, post-meiotic germ cells undergo a dramatic morphological reshaping process as well as a global epigenetic reconfiguration of the germ line chromatin-the histone-to-protamine switch. (jove.com)
  • Gene expression can be stably altered through epigenetic changes which not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to "memorize" these encounters once the stimulus is removed. (jove.com)
  • These rearrangements result in increased expression of blood cell development genes by promoting gene transcription and through epigenetic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Currently, the main factors thought to be associated with outcomes after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries are the age of the patient, mechanism of injury, nerve injured, injury location, defect length, repair time, repair method, operation technique, and repair materials. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, despite numerous studies of outcomes after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries, there is no agreement regarding the independent predictors of a good prognosis, and the dose-effect relationship of the predictors has not been quantified. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A study by Dr. Bo He and co-workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China showed that predictors of outcome after the repair of peripheral nerve injuries include age, gender, repair time, repair materials, nerve injured, defect length, and duration of follow-up, and the nerve injured is the main factor affecting the rate of good to excellent recovery. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Functional recovery of peripheral nerve injuries is multifaceted, and different factors may affect outcome in different patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Leukodystrophies affect the growth and/or development of myelin, the fatty covering which acts as an insulator around nerve fibers throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can be simplified into 4 main processing stages: photoreception, transmission to bipolar cells, transmission to ganglion cells which also contain photoreceptors, the photosensitive ganglion cells, and transmission along the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is a central tract of many axons of ganglion cells connecting primarily to the lateral geniculate body, a visual relay station in the diencephalon (the rear of the forebrain). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • This often involves the analysis of antiserum samples that contain specific antibodies against the immunizing antigen, and blood lymphocytes from lymphoid organs for examination of T cell-mediated responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • B cell immune responses are measured by analyzing antibodies produced through the humoral immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum is isolated from a clotted blood sample, and the circulating antibody that accumulates in the plasma is assayed by methods that include the following: Affinity chromatography, by which antibodies of interest are isolated from solution by the specific binding of antigens anchored to a solid matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is similar to the ELISA assay in that antibodies bound to plastic wells are used to bind the cytokines secreted by T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells are unique, however, as they have the ability to recognize stressed cells in the absence of antibodies and MHC, allowing for a much faster immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medulla is specialized to allow thymocytes to undergo additional rounds of negative selection to remove auto-reactive T cells from the mature repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • We present the first study whereby iPSCs are derived in parallel from multiple donors using episomal, non-integrating, oriP/EBNA1-based plasmids from freshly drawn blood. (jove.com)
  • Lymphoma
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) was discovered in 1977 in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of the normal distribution of these B cells is one basis for demonstrating clonality, the key element for establishing a diagnosis of any B cell malignancy (B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Combining two-photon microscopy with fluorescent tracers, we successfully visualized the engrafted tissues at the single cell level in live mice over several months. (jove.com)
  • 6,7 A recent study has demonstrated that blood flow recovery in ischemic limb and tumor angiogenesis are substantially impaired in heterozygous AM knockout mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. (jove.com)
  • Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. (jove.com)
  • It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells with the greatest self-renewal capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balanced (Bala) HSCs repopulate peripheral white blood cells in the same ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells as seen in unmanipulated mice (on average about 15% myeloid and 85% lymphoid cells, or 3 ≤ ρ ≤ 10). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins (Ig) B cell receptors, but they usually express the surface markers CD16 (FcγRIII) and CD56 in humans, NK1.1 or NK1.2 in C57BL/6 mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NKp46 cell surface marker constitutes, at the moment, another NK cell marker of preference being expressed in both humans, several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cell receptor types (with inhibitory, as well as some activating members) are differentiated by structure, with a few examples to follow: Ly49 (homodimers), relatively ancient, C-type lectin family receptors, are of multigenic presence in mice, while humans have only one pseudogenic Ly49, the receptor for classical (polymorphic) MHC I molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Transfected cells are then plated onto a layer of irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs) for continued reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • Once iPSC colonies exhibit typical human embryonic stem cell (hESC) morphology, they are gently transferred to individual iMEF-coated tissue culture plates for continued growth and expansion. (jove.com)
  • Functional
  • Factors predicting functional recovery of the upper limb after peripheral nerv. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, thymic stromal cells allow for the selection of a functional and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can also be identified by functional assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a list of genes/protein products that can be used to identify various types of stem cells, or functional assays that do the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the knowledge that natural killer cells are effectors of innate immunity, recent research has uncovered information on both activating and inhibitory NK cell receptors which play important functional roles, including self tolerance and the sustaining of NK cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • The combination of the microscopic examination of the peripheral blood and analysis of the lymphocytes by flow cytometry to confirm clonality and marker molecule expression is needed to establish the diagnosis of CLL. (wikipedia.org)
  • In CLL, the lymphocytes are genetically clonal, of the B cell lineage (expressing marker molecules clusters of differentiation 19 and 20), and characteristically express the marker molecules CD5 and CD23. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ratio ρ = L / M {\displaystyle \rho =L/M} of lymphoid (L) to myeloid (M) cells in blood as a quantitative marker, the stem cell compartment can be split into three categories of HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • vessels
  • In vivo, AM administration not only enhanced the differentiation of MNC into endothelial cells but also produced mature vessels that included smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The thymus consists of two lobes, merged in the middle, surrounded by a capsule that extends with blood vessels into the interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This network forms an adventitia to the blood vessels, which enter the cortex via septa near the junction with the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • This includes differentiation from a stem cell population, mitotic amplification, and meiosis. (jove.com)
  • Thus, the purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate whether local infusion of AM enhances the angiogenic potency of MNC transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia and (2) to investigate the effects of AM on the survival, adhesion, and differentiation of transplanted MNCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • This atypical molecular pattern includes the coexpression of cell surface markers clusters of differentiation 5 (CD5) and 23. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignancy
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural cytotoxicity receptors directly induce apoptosis after binding to Fas ligand that directly indicate infection of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MHC-dependent receptors (described above) use an alternate pathway to induce apoptosis in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. (jove.com)
  • immune
  • We could predict with high accuracy (greater than or equal to 80 %) a wide range of immunological statuses such as healthy, transplantation recipient, and lymphoid cancer, suggesting as a proof of principle that diversity profiling can recover a large amount of immunodiagnostic fingerprints from immune repertoire data. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system consists of specialized cells that work together to fight off bacteria, fungi and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells include T lymphocytes (T cells), that primarily mediate the immune system, B lymphocytes (B cells) and Natural Killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with RD have a genetic defect that affects the T cells and at least one other type of immune cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since more than one type of immune cell is affected, this disease is classified as a severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionizing radiation kills lymphoid cells while leaving other tissues of the body intact, and this eliminates immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the body adapts specifically to foreign invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role NK cells play is analogous to that of cytotoxic T cells in the vertebrate adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • NK cells also play a role in the adaptive immune response: numerous experiments have demonstrated their ability to readily adjust to the immediate environment and formulate antigen-specific immunological memory, fundamental for responding to secondary infections with the same antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • The cortex is mainly made up of thymocytes, supported by a network of finely-branched epithelial reticular cells, which is continuous with a similar network in the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are concentric, layered whorls of epithelial cells that increase in number throughout life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Suppression of STAT3 NH 2 -terminal domain chemosensitizes medulloblastoma cells by activation of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 via de-repression by microRNA-21. (nih.gov)
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • AK2 protein allows hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there is a mutation in the protein, that means that the mitochondria metabolism most likely will be altered and will not be able to provide enough energy to the hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are manipulated and corrected with gene technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortex is the location of the earliest events in thymocyte development, where T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection takes place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thymocytes that reach the medulla have already successfully undergone T-cell receptor gene rearrangement and positive selection, and have been exposed to a limited degree of negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD34
  • Conversely, under other circumstances CD34 has been shown to act as molecular "Teflon" and block mast cell, eosinophil and dendritic cell precursor adhesion, and to facilitate opening of vascular lumina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, recent data suggest CD34 may also play a more selective role in chemokine-dependent migration of eosinophils and dendritic cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of its mode of action, under all circumstances CD34, and its relatives podocalyxin and endoglycan, facilitates cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] CD34 is expressed in roughly 20% of murine hematopoietic stem cells, and can be stimulated and reversed. (wikipedia.org)
  • repopulation
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Imaging using confocal/two-photon hybrid microscopy enables simultaneous high resolution assessment of uniquely marked cells and their progeny in conjunction with structural components of the tissues. (jove.com)
  • Volumetric analyses over large areas reveal that spectrally coded HSPC-derived cells can be detected non-invasively in various intact tissues, including the bone marrow (BM), for extensive periods of time following transplantation. (jove.com)
  • For years, the concept of harvesting stem cells and re-implanting them into one's own body to regenerate organs and tissues has been embraced and researched in animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal population of B lymphocytes in the blood, bone marrow, or tissues that display an unusual but characteristic pattern of molecules on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy (to maintain the architecture or relationship of the cells to each other and to the bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • In the majority of cases the damage results from physical trauma such as car accidents, gunshots, falls, or sports injuries, but it can also result from nontraumatic causes such as infection, insufficient blood flow, and tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Natural killer cell activation is determined by the balance of inhibitory and activating receptor stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD94 : NKG2 (heterodimers), a C-type lectin family receptor, is conserved in both rodents and primates and identifies nonclassical (also nonpolymorphic) MHC I molecules such as HLA-E. Expression of HLA-E at the cell surface is dependent on the presence of nonamer peptide epitope derived from the signal sequence of classical MHC class I molecules, which is generated by the sequential action of signal peptide peptidase and the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The methodology to create induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) affords the opportunity to generate cells specific to the individual providing the host tissue. (jove.com)
  • This drives efforts to develop ways of using a person's own cells to grow, or re-grow cartilage tissue to replace missing or damaged cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are held in place by a small piece of soft tissue from the tibia, called a periosteal flap, which is sutured over the area to serve as a watertight lid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells grow in self-organized spheroid matrices which are implanted via injected fluid or inserted tissue matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into new treatments for spinal cord injuries includes stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support, epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The damage can also be divided into primary and secondary injury: the cell death that occurs immediately in the original injury, and biochemical cascades that are initiated by the original insult and cause further tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematopoietic tissue contains cells with long-term and short-term regeneration capacities and committed multipotent, oligopotent, and unipotent progenitors. (wikipedia.org)