• residues
  • Examples include: Amanitins Bacitracin Colistin Ciclosporin Dactinomycin Daptomycin Gramicidin S Hymenistatin Microcystins Nisin Nodularin Octreotide Polymyxin B Pristinamycin Valinomycin (technically a depsipeptide) Vancomycin Viscumamide Yunnanin A Nonribosomal peptide lantibiotics, 19-37 residues and 1 to 5 'bridges' Jensen, Knud (2009-09-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cys-Cys cyclization results from the formation of disulfide bridges between cysteine residues of the peptide. (jpt.com)
  • When a peptide contains multiple cysteine residues, challenges arise due to the large number of possible regioisomers. (jpt.com)
  • In the case of kalata B1 the indicated glycine (G) and asparagine (N) amino acids are the terminal residues that are linked in a peptide bond to cyclise the peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis
  • The biosynthesis of xenortides A-D consists of two non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) coded by genes XndA and XndB, as well as upstream NADH flavin reductase, and a D-aminopeptidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • XndB has been implicated in elongation with N-methylphenylalanine, as well as the final condensation of the enzyme-bound peptide with either decarboxylated phenylalanine (xenortides A and C) or decarboxylated tryptophan (xenortides B and D), ending the biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mass spectrometry
  • Peptide sets and pools, as well as assay standardization kits are available with stable isotope labeled or unlabeled proteotypic peptides for mass-spectrometry based proteomics such as MRM assays. (jpt.com)
  • In 1999, Yates' group loaded strong-cation exchange (SCX) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) stationary phases sequentially into a capillary column coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the analysis of peptides, which became one of the most efficient technique in proteomics afterwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • amides
  • Cyclic depsipeptides, such as aureobasidin A and HUN-7293, have at least one lactone (ester) linkage in place of one of the amides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endomorphin-1 (H-Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin-2 (H-Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are peptide amides with the highest known affinity and specificity for the μ opioid receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • amatoxin
  • Some cyclic depsipeptides are cyclized between the C-terminal carboxyl and the side chain of a Thr or Ser residue in the chain, such as kahalalide F, theonellapeptolide, and didemnin B. Bicyclic peptides such as the amatoxin amanitin and the phallotoxin phalloidin contain a bridging group, generally between two of the side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Not only does this discovery raise hope for better treatments for many parasitic and bacterial diseases, it highlights the value of screening peptides in the search for ways to treat conditions that do not respond well-or have stopped responding-to more traditional chemical drug compounds. (georgetown.edu)
  • Cyclic compounds. (hku.hk)
  • fungi
  • Tentoxin (cyclo(N-methyl-L-alanyl-L-leucyl-N-methyl-trans-dehydrophenyl-alanyl-glycyl)) is a natural cyclic tetrapeptide produced by phytopathogenic fungi from genus Alternaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity
  • An initial noncovalent interaction involving the ADDA side chain (specifically where ADDA has a 6E double bond) of the nodularin and a free D-glutamyl carboxyl group off a cyclic structure of the phosphatase is the source of toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxyl
  • Homodetic cyclic peptides, such as cyclosporine A, are those in which the ring is composed exclusively of normal peptide bonds (i.e. between the alpha carboxyl of one residue to the alpha amine of another). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic isopeptides contain at least one non-alpha amide linkage, such as a linkage between the side chain of one residue to the alpha carboxyl group of another residue, as in microcystin and bacitracin. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • The DPRA measures the reaction of a chemical with synthetic peptides containing Cysteine (Ac‑RFAACAA‑COOH) or Lysine (Ac‑RFAAKAA‑COOH) to assess its sensitization potency. (jpt.com)
  • immune system
  • Examples of tetrapeptides are: Tuftsin (L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine) is a peptide related primarily to the immune system function. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclization
  • The "ornithine effect", which describes the conversion of an arginine residue to an ornithine residue via reaction with hydrazine and subsequent preferential cyclization via nucleophilic attack of the ornithine side-chain to the neighboring carbonyl group, inducing heterolytic cleavage of the adjacent amide bond under gentle activation, is used to preferentially open cyclic and stapled rings to linearize these challenging biomolecules. (utexas.edu)
  • Peptide cyclization to form cyclic peptides or cyclized peptides is a frequently used strategy for the development of peptides with enhanced conformational stability (compared to their linear analogs). (jpt.com)
  • Synthetically, this is the most straightforward and frequently used peptide cyclization method. (jpt.com)
  • Deacylation can then occur through intramolecular cyclization or through hydrolysis to give the cyclic or linear product respectively (See figure 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • linear
  • The xenortides (A-D) are a class of linear peptides isolated from the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Here we report five independent crystal structures of CXCR4 bound to an antagonist small molecule IT1t and a cyclic peptide CVX15 at 2.5-3.2 Å resolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we report the crystal structures of human CXCR4 in complex with a small molecule antagonist at 2.5 Å resolution and with a cyclic peptide inhibitor at 2.9 Å resolution. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bond
  • Other bicyclic peptides include echinomycin, triostin A, and Celogentin C. There are a number of cyclic peptide hormones which are cyclized through a disulfide bond between two cysteines, for example somatostatin and oxytocin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Member
  • Patellamide A originates from a ribosomal peptide, making it a member of the RiPP superfamily of natural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluation
  • We offer our extensive know-how and experience in peptide microarray incubation & data evaluation as full-service packages for many applications. (jpt.com)
  • natural
  • Patellamide A is a peptide natural product produced by Prochloron didemni, a cyanobacterial symbiont of Lissoclinum patella, and was first isolated in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • We offer a large variety of positive and negative control peptide pools for antigen specific T cell stimulation as well as kit to produce TCR-engineered reference samples for performance control. (jpt.com)
  • class
  • Specifically, cyclic and stapled peptides have become an intriguing class of biomolecules in drug research afforded to them because of their biological stability and resistance to proteolytic digestions. (utexas.edu)
  • Applications
  • reported that HILIC/CEX offered unique selectivity, stronger separation power and wider range of applications compared to RPLC for peptide separations. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • The gene patE encodes the precursor peptide that contains the primary sequences of patellamides A and C. It has been proposed by Schmidt et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In investigating the feedback effects of circulating hormones on the brain, we showed previously that adrenalectomy (ADX) increases vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated cAMP generation in slices from rat hippocampus, a brain structure with high levels of glucocorticoid receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Purified, fully analyzed, high quality peptides, synthesized from the peptide experts for Alzheimers and prion research. (jpt.com)