Loading...



  • cell-penetra
  • To be used as therapeutics, each novel cell-penetrating peptide needs to be fully characterized, including their physicochemical properties, their biological activity and their uptake mechanism. (diva-portal.org)
  • These findings extend the knowledge of the variables that condition intracellular Cell-penetrating peptide mediated transport of nucleic acids, which ultimately translates into a small step towards successful non-viral gene therapy. (diva-portal.org)
  • calcitonin-gene-re
  • 1. Binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide were localized and characterized in porcine coronary arteries using quantitative autoradiography, and the density of binding sites was compared between large epicardial and small intramyocardial coronary arteries. (clinsci.org)
  • 2. A single class of binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l was detected in both the large and small coronary arteries. (clinsci.org)
  • β-Human calcitonin-gene-related peptide showed higher affinity than α-human calcitonin-gene-related peptide for the binding sites. (clinsci.org)
  • 4. The present findings lend further support to the theory of regional variation in the vasodilator response to calcitonin-gene-related peptide in porcine coronary arteries, which seems to be due to different densities of a single type of receptor for calcitonin-gene-related peptide. (clinsci.org)
  • Distinct substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive nerves in the guinea pig eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using a double labeling indirect immunofluorescent technique, we studied the guinea pig trigeminal ganglion and eye for co-localization of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the trigeminal ganglion, the number of neurons immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide significantly outnumber those immunoreactive for substance P, but virtually all substance P positive neurons are immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide. (arvojournals.org)
  • Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for calcitonin gene-related peptide tend to be concentrated in the cornea and posterior ciliary body. (arvojournals.org)
  • nucleic
  • Can pseudocomplementary peptide nucleic acid nucleases (pcPNANs) be a new tool for genetic engineering? (peerj.com)
  • genetic engineering , pseudocomplementary peptide nucleic acid nucleases , DNA double strand break , homologous recombination , error-prone nonhomologous end joining. (peerj.com)
  • Shi P. ( 2014 ) Can pseudocomplementary peptide nucleic acid nucleases (pcPNANs) be a new tool for genetic engineering? (peerj.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a new tool for genetic engineering, the pseudocomplementary peptide nucleic acid nucleases (pcPNANs), which are composed of a pseudocomplementary PNA (pcPNA) specific for a DNA target sequence, a FokI nuclease cleavage domain and a nuclear localization signal. (peerj.com)
  • known
  • In this report, we present evidence that two known immunosuppressive neuropeptides, the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), contribute to the development of bone marrow-derived tolerogenic DCs in vitro and in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • These peptides are known to form noncovalent, nano-sized complexes with diverse oligonucleotide cargoes. (diva-portal.org)
  • plasma
  • The ability of cell-penetrating peptides to cross plasma membranes has been explored for various applications, including the delivery of bioactive molecules to inhibit disease-causing cellular processes. (diva-portal.org)
  • highly
  • Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements reveal a striking difference in intermolecular interactions between two short highly charged peptides - deca-arginine (R10) and deca-lysine (K10). (lu.se)
  • Our group has developed a series of highly performing, non-toxic cell-penetrating peptides, all derived from the original sequence of transportan 10. (diva-portal.org)
  • synthesis
  • The cytoplasmic membrane is a frequent target, but peptides may also interfere with DNA and protein synthesis, protein folding, and cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the insulin synthesis pathway, first preproinsulin is translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum of beta cells of the pancreas with an A-chain, a C-peptide, a B-chain, and a signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical peptide synthesis most commonly starts at the carboxyl end of the peptide, and proceeds toward the amino-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical synthesis of peptides can be carried out using classical solution-phase techniques, although these have been replaced in most research and development settings by solid-phase methods (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Solution-phase synthesis retains it's usefulness in large-scale production of peptides for industrial purposes however. (wikipedia.org)
  • The established method for the production of synthetic peptides in the lab is know as solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneered by Robert Bruce Merrifield, SPPS caused a paradigm shift within the peptide synthesis community, and allows the rapid assembly of a peptide chain through successive reactions of amino acids onto an insoluble porous support. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peptide remains covalently attached to the support throughout the synthesis, allowing it to be easily isolated from reagents and reaction by-products after each step via simple filtration and washing of the polymer beads with the reaction solvent (usually DMF or NMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach circumvents the comparatively time-consuming isolation of the product peptide from solution after each reaction step, which would be required when using conventional solution-phase synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the synthesis the crude peptide is cleaved from the solid support using a reagent such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, depending on the chemistry used (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • In light of the requirement for highly efficient coupling reactions discussed above, coupling reagents or 'activators' are therefore used for amide bond formation during peptide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • small peptides
  • In addition to containing small peptides, the resulting material includes fats, metals, salts, vitamins and many other biological compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, small peptides (such as single alpha-helices) do not exhibit significant helicity in solution due to entropic factors: this effect diminishes binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • amide
  • derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide ( amide ) bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed "residues" due to the release of either a hydrogen ion from the amine end or a hydroxyl ion from the carboxyl end, or both, as a water molecule is released during formation of each amide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Condensation: The C-domain catalyzes the amide bond formation between the thioester group of the growing peptide chain from the previous module with the amino group of the current module. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosome
  • The co-translational pathway is initiated when the signal peptide emerges from the ribosome and is recognized by the signal-recognition particle (SRP). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • After proinsulin is packaged into vesicles in the Golgi apparatus (beta-granules), the C-peptide is removed, leaving the A-chain B-chain, bound together by disulfide bonds, that constitute the insulin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides can be chemically synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Peptides are synthesized by specific enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these mechanisms for lowering the activation energy have been observed in peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases), which are naturally occurring enzymes that catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of X-Pro peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • posttranslational
  • However, these peptides frequently have posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation , hydroxylation , sulfonation , palmitoylation , glycosylation and disulfide formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • In mammals and birds two categories of bombesin-like peptides are known, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), which stimulates the release of gastrin as well as other gastrointestinal hormones, and neuromedin B (NMB), a neuropeptide whose function is not yet clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • signal sequence
  • The signal sequence is cleaved from the N-terminus of the peptide by a signal peptidase, leaving proinsulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, the region of the mRNA that codes for the signal peptide (i.e. the signal sequence coding region, or SSCR) can function as an RNA element with specific activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers , alongside nucleic acids , oligosaccharides and polysaccharides , etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therapeutic Peptides: Methods and Protocols features biological methods for the preparation of peptide phage display libraries using both filamentous and lytic phage. (springer.com)
  • Many of these peptides are unstructured in free solution, and fold into their final configuration upon partitioning into biological membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • The secondary structures of these molecules follow 4 themes, including i) α-helical, ii) β-stranded due to the presence of 2 or more disulfide bonds, iii) β-hairpin or loop due to the presence of a single disulfide bond and/or cyclization of the peptide chain, and iv) extended. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trans form is preferred overwhelmingly in most peptide bonds (roughly 1000:1 ratio in trans:cis populations). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, peptide bonds can undergo chemical reactions, usually through an attack of an electronegative atom on the carbonyl carbon, breaking the carbonyl double bond and forming a tetrahedral intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • analogs
  • MCD peptide analogs, such as [AlaMCD, provide a base for designing agents that can prevent IgE/Fc-RIa interactions and reduce allergic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional publications have shown benefits of Peptide T and newer oral analogs to reverse neuropathic pain, cancer pain, chemokine mediated excitotoxicity, which is a cause of neuronal death in neuroinflammation, and ischemic stroke (reviewed in ), in part by shifting the cytokine balance from M1 (inflammatory) to M2 (repair). (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • C-peptide may be used for determining the possibility of gastrinomas associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasm syndromes (MEN 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • pharmacologic
  • The pharmacologic interaction with immune receptors (p-i) model states that drugs can induce the formation of HLA-drug complexes that can activate T-cell immune responses directly without requiring a specific peptide ligand ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Peptide stapling is used to enhance pharmacologic performance of peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • Due to its resonance stabilization, the peptide bond is relatively unreactive under physiological conditions, even less than similar compounds such as esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutics
  • In the past few years, new technological advancements in the pharma industry have influenced the growth of the global peptide therapeutics market , which is now estimated to reach US $23.70 billion by 2020, with an increased number of peptides now in the pipeline of many biotech companies. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • In 2013, Aileron Therapeutics completed the first stapled peptide clinical trial with their growth-hormone-releasing hormone agonist ALRN-5281. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Tachykinin peptides are also involved in inflammation, and tachykinin receptor antagonists have been researched for use in treating inflammatory conditions such as asthma and irritable bowel syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The histamine releasing function of MCD peptide, at low concentrations, causes the degranulation of mast cell , and shows anti-inflammatory activity at higher concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These actions of MCD peptide on mast cells is thought to be involved in allergic and inflammatory processes related to type I hypersensitivity reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • An orally administered analog of Peptide T/DAPTA prevented neuropathic pain from developing, or reversed it once it had occurred, (animals) by blocking chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5, microglial activation, the infiltration of monocytes into spinal cord, and inhibiting the inflammatory cytokines evoked by peripheral nerve injury that causes chronic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide T/DAPTA has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions which may underlie the described cognitive benefits and suggests uses in brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-peptide also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as well as aid repair of smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • initially
  • It appears as though many peptides initially isolated as and termed "antimicrobial peptides" have been shown to have more significant alternative functions in vivo (e.g. hepcidin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the sole interest in C-peptide was as a marker of insulin secretion and has, as such, been of great value in furthering the understanding of the pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)