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  • duodenal ulcers
  • GERD/maintenance of healing in erosive esophagitis.Duodenal ulcers (with or without anti-infectives for Helicobacter pylori).Short-term treatment of active benign gastric ulcer.Pathologic hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.Reduction of risk of GI bleeding in critically ill patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Relief of heartburn Short-term and maintenance therapy of gastric and duodenal ulcers Ranitidine can also be given with NSAIDs to reduce the risk of ulceration. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In addition, both acid production and radioligand binding of adenosine analogs to isolated cell membranes were potently blocked by selective A2BR antagonists, whereas ligands for A 1 , A 2A , and A 3 adenosine receptors failed to abolish activation. (physiology.org)
  • These receptors are increased in number on luminal side by fusion of tubulovesicles during activation of parietal cells and removed during deactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypotensive effect of apelin results from the activation of receptors expressed at the surface of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • The angiogenic activity is the consequence of apelin action on the proliferation and migration of the endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apelin activates inside the cell transduction cascades (ERKs, Akt, and p70S6kinase phosphorylation), which lead to the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels It is interesting that knockout of apelin gene is associated with a delay in the development of the retinal vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Note that the mechanism underlying this test is in contrast to the normal physiologic mechanism whereby secretin inhibits gastrin release from G cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • small intestine
  • Although enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine were thought to represent the predominant gut-brain regulators of food intake, recent advances also established a major role for gastric hormones in these regulatory pathways. (biomedsearch.com)
  • membrane
  • To fulfill these tasks in a regulated manner, the parietal cell is equipped with an exclusive collection of apical and basolateral ion transporter proteins that are exposed on the membrane whenever their functions are required (see e.g., review Ref. 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • The N-terminal domain protrudes out of the extracellular side of the cell membrane and is, thus, soluble in the aqueous environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, the transmembrane and C-terminal domains are lipid-soluble to enable the protein to incorporate into the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • bicarbonate
  • The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is exchanged for a chloride ion (Cl−) on the basal side of the cell and the bicarbonate diffuses into the venous blood, leading to an alkaline tide phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • Although X/A-cells were initially thought to only release one hormone that stimulates food intake, this view has changed with the identification of additional peptide products also derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin, and nesfatin-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stimulation
  • Gastrinoma cells release gastrin in response to secretin stimulation, thereby providing a sensitive means of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Enrichment of rab11, a small GTP-binding protein, in gastric parietal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We already confirmed that both the protein and mRNA of aromatase, estrogen synthetase, and its high enzymatic activity in the parietal cells by several techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, thin layer chromatography, GC-MS method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor that is expressed at the surface of some cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kir4.1, may form a heterodimer with another potassium channel protein and may be responsible for the potassium buffering action of glial cells in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parathyroid chief cells have large amounts of organelles associated with protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than simply be secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • The apelin receptor is expressed early during the embryonic development of the heart, where it regulates the migration of cell progenitors fated to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, the contractile cells of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric chief cells are much longer lived and are believed to differentiate from stem cells located higher in the gastric unit in the isthmus. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • First and foremost, the gastric endocrine X/A-like cell was in the focus of many studies due to the production of ghrelin, which is until now the only known orexigenic hormone that is peripherally produced and centrally acting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As in many endocrine organs, with age, more oxyphil cells appear in the parathyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • metaplasia
  • In gastric tissue, a loss of parietal cells due to chronic inflammation has been shown to affect chief cell differentiation and can induce chief cells to transdifferentiate back into neck cells and can lead to the formation of mucus cell metaplasia known as spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) that could be precancerous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ranitidine
  • In a 2009 meta-analysis comparing the net benefit of proton pump inhibitors and ranitidine to reduce the risk of aspiration before anesthesia, ranitidine was found to be more effective than proton pump inhibitors in reducing the volume of gastric secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pancreatic
  • Sulfonylureas are insulin secretagogues, triggering insulin release by direct action on the KATP channel of the pancreatic beta cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this and its ability to regulate multiple different ion channels, KCNE2 exerts considerable influence on a number of cell types and tissues. (wikipedia.org)