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  • kidney
  • These long-awaited studies further clarify the signaling relationships between the parathyroid gland, kidney, and metabolic bone disease in patients with mutations in the gene encoding the CaSR, and they provide new insights into understanding the signaling pathways involving the CaSR in skeletal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Patients undergoing hemodialysis for end-stage kidney disease may develop aluminum deposits within the parathyroid glands leading to primary hypoparathyroidism. (medlexi.com)
  • hormones
  • These glands, through chemical messengers called hormones, regulate nearly every function in the body. (hubpages.com)
  • Iodine - this substance is needed by the thyroid gland in order to produce the hormones T4 and T3. (hubpages.com)
  • I mentioned that the thyroid gland makes three hormones. (hubpages.com)
  • This is a fascinating but complex system of hormones taking messages back and forward in order that the thyroid gland is properly regulated and functions at an optimum level. (hubpages.com)
  • The thyroid gland produces two hormones, tri-iodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine (T4), which regulate basal metabolic rate and blood calcium levels respectively. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The thyroid gland in some salamanders, like the Axolotl, produce normal thyroid hormones (THs), but cells in the organism express thyroid hormone receptors (TR) that are mutated, and do not bond correctly with thyroid hormones, leading to some salamanders in a state of perpetual juvenile-hood. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Adipose tissue comprises 25-40% of normal parathyroid gland tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. A. Guerrero, D. B. Evans, and D. B. Evans, "Viability of cryopreserved parathyroid tissue: when is continued storage versus disposal indicated? (hindawi.com)
  • Some parathyroid tissue must be left in place to help prevent hypoparathyroidism The patient usually recovers very quickly after the operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.02 mmol/L) High blood levels of magnesium (hypermagnesemia) High normal to mildly elevated parathyroid hormone Types include: Most cases of FHH are associated with loss of function mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene, expressed in parathyroid and kidney tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nuclear imaging technique reveals the presence and location of pathological parathyroid tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • fourth pouch
  • Parathyroid glands are derived from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, with the superior glands arising from the fourth pouch, and the inferior glands arising from the higher third pouch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parathyroid glands originate from the interaction of the endoderm of the third and fourth pouch and neural crest mesenchyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pair of glands which is ultimately inferior develops from the third pouch with the thymus, whereas the pair of glands which is ultimately superior develops from the fourth pouch. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Absence or dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is one of the components of chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndrome (other names: DiGeorge syndrome, Schprintzen syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • surgical
  • The topics include the description of all surgically relevant pathologies, the preoperative surgical evaluation, decision making, and operative strategies for the different thyroid and parathyroid diseases. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • The genes, TBX1, CRKL, GATA3, GCM2, and SOX3 have also been shown to play a crucial role in the formation of the parathyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxyphil cells have been shown to express parathyroid-relevant genes found in the chief cells and have the potential to produce additional autocrine/paracrine factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • absence
  • In common mudpuppies, the purpose of the absence of a parathyroid gland is poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • One reason for the absence might be the lack of variability in the climate of mudpuppies, as the parathyroid glands of salamanders vary greatly depending on seasonal changes, or whether the organism hibernates. (wikipedia.org)
  • adrenal glands
  • Sometimes one or both adrenal glands make. (villa-agata.eu)
  • Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways: they are calmer and significantly less likely to bite, they can tolerate greater crowding, they breed earlier and produce more offspring, and their brains, livers, kidneys, adrenal glands, and hearts are smaller. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of the total body weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small
  • 10.The gland is small, atrophic, hypoechoic, and heteroge-neous in end-stage disease. (thyroidnosurgery.com)
  • Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas first appear as small lumps associated with one of the anal sacs (rarely bilateral), but they can grow to a large size. (wikipedia.org)