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  • postoperative pain
  • This publication is of particular importance because anesthesiologists have had significant difficulties in assessing postoperative pain in children with major cognitive disabilities. (asahq.org)
  • Across species, GS are proven to have high accuracy and reliability, and are considered useful for indicating both procedural and postoperative pain, and for assessing the efficacy of analgesics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facial grimacing by mice after undergoing laparotomy surgery indicates postoperative pain lasts for 36 to 48 h (and at relatively high levels for 8 to 12 h) with relative exacerbation during the early dark (active) photo-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the grimacing indicates that buprenorphine is fully efficacious at recommended doses against early postoperative pain, but carprofen and ketoprofen are efficacious only at doses much higher than currently recommended: acetaminophen is not efficacious. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in 2014 examined postoperative pain in mice following surgical induction of myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)
  • assess pain
  • 5 Although multiple methods have been described to measure and assess pain in children, most are not well-validated and not applicable to all age groups, and none have been universally accepted. (asahq.org)
  • In 2010, a team of researchers successfully developed the first method to assess pain using changes in facial expression in any non-human animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • There is no CMS incentive that gives doctors more money if their patients' pain control is better, or that takes money away if it is worse. (nejm.org)
  • In any case, prescription data demonstrate that the opioid epidemic began in the late 1990s, long before HCAHPS began measuring pain in hospital patients (2006) and even longer before the first financial incentives for patient experience were introduced (2012). (nejm.org)
  • Nevertheless, I don't dispute that simply knowing that pain control is being measured can change the way physicians practice - and that this awareness can lead to better care in some patients and worse care in others. (nejm.org)
  • Pain control is the topic of the day, but tomorrow it might be efficiency, or readmissions, or the percentage of patients who have surgery in the last week of life. (nejm.org)
  • During the procedure, patients' perception of pain plays a key role in how well they are able to tolerate the procedure. (isrctn.com)
  • Orofacial pain patients made numerical scale and VAS ratings in response to noxious thermal stimuli (45-51°C) applied for 5 sec to the forearm by a contact thermode. (ovid.com)
  • In the 13 patients in whom CIPN did not occur, no significant decrease in the pain degree by Pain Vision ® was detected ( p = 0.764). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression, and the measurement of pain in patients unable to express themselves verbally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as with doctors and medics who sometimes share no common language with their patients, the indicators of pain can still be understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensory
  • 3-5 Different measures are required to assay the sensory, emotional, behavioral, spiritual-existential, and social dimensions of pain. (asahq.org)
  • Beyond consensus that pain is "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience," its biology remains poorly understood, and options for its treatment remain frustratingly inadequate. (ama-assn.org)
  • The perception of pain includes a sensory component, involving neural pathway activation in response to noxious stimuli, and an affective response, which involves behavioral and cognitive aspects. (asahq.org)
  • The International Association for the Study of Pain states that, "Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. (asahq.org)
  • Therefore, this concept is often excluded in definitions of pain in animals, such as that provided by Zimmerman: "an aversive sensory experience caused by actual or potential injury that elicits protective motor and vegetative reactions, results in learned avoidance and may modify species-specific behaviour, including social behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rating Scale
  • Immediately after the procedure, participants are asked to express the experienced average pain during the entire procedure, using the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). (isrctn.com)
  • Osteoarthritis Research Society International-Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OARSI-OMERACT) Initiative, New OA Pain Measure: Disease-Specific, Osteoarthritis Pain The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS-11) is an 11-point scale for patient self-reporting of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assessing
  • Premise 2: Vascular occlusion testing measures microcirculatory dysfunction NIRS measurement of peripheral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), combined with a reproducible ischemia-reperfusion challenge to induce reactive hyperemia (vascular occlusion testing - VOT), has been described as a valid and reliable method for assessing microcirculatory dysfunction (De Backer et al. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For mice at least, the GS has been shown to be a highly accurate, repeatable and reliable means of assessing pain requiring only a short period of training for the observer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, the GS offers a means of assessing post-operative pain that is as effective as manual behavioural-based scoring, without the limitations of such approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address this problem when assessing the capacity of other species to experience pain, argument-by-analogy is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • elicit
  • Addicts quickly learn the diagnoses that cannot be definitively confirmed or ruled out by examinations or test results but that elicit prescriptions for opioid pain management. (ama-assn.org)
  • 1997) describe the use of a CO2 laser or a contact thermode to heat the skin and elicit a pain response. (wikipedia.org)
  • neonates
  • Pain in neonates and children has historically been underreported, undertreated, and frequently misunderstood. (asahq.org)
  • routinely
  • It is occasionally used as a diagnostic tool, and routinely used in basic pain research and in the testing of analgetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • The authors compared fluctuations in skin conductance to age-appropriate standardized behavioral and self-report pain measures. (asahq.org)
  • dyspareunia
  • For research purposes, and for more detailed pain measurement in clinical practice, the review suggested use of VAS or NRS for each type of typical pain related to endometriosis (dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia and non-menstrual chronic pelvic pain), combined with the clinical global impression (CGI) and a quality of life scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain may get worse over time (progressive pain), also lower back pains linked to the pelvis chronic pelvic pain - typically accompanied by lower back pain or abdominal pain dyspareunia - painful sex dysuria - urinary urgency, frequency, and sometimes painful voiding Compared with women with superficial endometriosis, those with deep disease appear to be more likely to report shooting rectal pain and a sense of their insides being pulled down. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensation
  • Dolorimeters apply steady pressure, heat, or electrical stimulation to some area, or move a joint or other body part and determine what level of heat or pressure or electric current or amount of movement produces a sensation of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that most people expressed a pain sensation when the skin temperature reached 113 °F (45 °C). They also found that after the skin temperature reached 152 °F (67 °C), the pain sensations did not intensify even if the heat was increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example in humans would be the rapid withdrawal of a finger that has touched something hot - the withdrawal occurs before any sensation of pain is actually experienced. (wikipedia.org)
  • perception
  • Pain perception is usually measured using pain scores, where participants are asked to rate their level of pain at certain timepoints, however this technique is not always accurate. (isrctn.com)
  • From these values, the pain degree was calculated from the following formula: (pain perception current value - lowest perceptible current value) ÷ lowest perceptible current value × 100. (biomedcentral.com)
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • Woolf suggests three classes of pain: nociceptive pain, inflammatory pain which is associated with tissue damage and the infiltration of immune cells, and pathological pain which is a disease state caused by damage to the nervous system or by its abnormal function (e.g. fibromyalgia, peripheral neuropathy, tension type headache, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain is usually transitory, lasting only until the noxious stimulus is removed or the underlying damage or pathology has healed, but some painful conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, cancer and idiopathic pain, may persist for years. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • Guidelines for the use of controlled substances for the treatment of pain now consider inappropriate treatment, including undertreatment of pain, a departure from an acceptable standard of practice. (ama-assn.org)
  • 1-3 Recent investigations show limited improvement in prevailing practices in pain management in children 4 despite efforts to change the purview and practice of clinicians. (asahq.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Björnström's algesimeter measures sensitivity of the skin to pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Randall and Selitto exploited the fact that inflammation increases pain sensitivity and this sensitivity is modifiable by analgesics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a characteristic of pain (in mammals at least) is that pain can result in hyperalgesia (a heightened sensitivity to noxious stimuli) and allodynia (a heightened sensitivity to non-noxious stimuli). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite
  • The amount of pain a woman feels correlates weakly with the extent or stage (1 through 4) of endometriosis, with some women having little or no pain despite having extensive endometriosis or endometriosis with scarring, while other women may have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most pain resolves once the noxious stimulus is removed and the body has healed, but it may persist despite removal of the stimulus and apparent healing of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether animals apart from humans also experience pain is often contentious despite being scientifically verifiable. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaluate
  • Young children and children with cognitive disabilities are especially difficult to evaluate for pain because of their limited understanding and communication skills. (asahq.org)
  • management
  • Increased levels of exertion are an indication of successful pain management. (google.com)
  • Inadequate pain management in children can lead to psycho-social consequences, including lack of interest in food, apathy, sleep problems, anxiety, avoidance of discussions about health, fear, hopelessness and powerlessness. (wikipedia.org)
  • indication
  • Non-human animals cannot report their feelings to language-using humans in the same manner as human communication, but observation of their behaviour provides a reasonable indication as to the extent of their pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue damage
  • First, the pain arising from the heightened sensitisation can be disproportionate to the actual tissue damage caused. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can mean that rather than the actual tissue damage causing pain, it is the pain due to the heightened sensitisation that becomes the concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • arises
  • Another source of pain is the organ dislocation that arises from adhesion binding internal organs to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • The pathophysiology of CRPS-1 is unknown yet a considerable number of studies suggest that the fundamental cause of abnormal pain is due to microvascular pathology of deep tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • inflammatory
  • Pain also increases the release of anti-inflammatory steroids that reduce the ability to fight infection, increase the metabolic rate and affect healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • This may include pain medication, hormonal treatments, or surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatments can vary among health care providers according to providers' personalities, cultures, beliefs and acceptance of pain in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suggested treatments for pain do not always resolve the problem, and in some cases, treatments and medications for pain actually cause pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The ratio scale properties of M-VAS combined with its ease of administration and scoring in clinical settings offer the possibility of a simple yet powerful pain measurement technology in both research and health care settings. (ovid.com)
  • According to the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals, pain is experienced by many animal species, including mammals and possibly all vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • abdominal
  • Many forms of syncope are preceded by a prodromal state that often includes dizziness and loss of vision, loss of hearing, loss of pain and feeling, nausea and abdominal discomfort, weakness, cold sweating, a feeling of hotness, palpitations and other phenomena, which are often called "presyncope" ( Reeves and Swenson, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The first stage begins with crampy abdominal or back pains that last around half a minute and occur every ten to thirty minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Until the turn of the 20th century, the assumption had been that the three-dimensional geometry of the universe (its description in terms of locations, shapes, distances, and directions) was distinct from time (the measurement of when events occur within the universe). (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • Similarly this study showed that measuring H-FABP in combination with troponin increased the diagnostic accuracy and with a negative predictive value of 98% could be used to identify those not suffering from MI at the early time point of 3-6 hours post chest pain onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • The crampy pains become stronger and closer together over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • I worry all the time about whether the pain will end. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time of the study there was a great deal of interest in understanding the cognitive factors involving pain and an individual's response to persistent pain experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-relativistic classical mechanics treats time as a universal quantity of measurement which is uniform throughout space and which is separate from space. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, Tania Singer and Professor Christopher Donald Frith of the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and the Functional Imaging Laboratory published the results of a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation which showed for the first time the role of sensorimotor components in empathy for pain in other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood pressure
  • Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically-recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement has disclosed what is going on during the course of syncope progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • In June 2008, a team led by Professor Maria Fitzgerald of UCL Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology published research showing that infants may be experiencing discomfort when their body movements, blood pressure and facial expressions show them to be pain free. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Back labour is a term for specific pain occurring in the lower back, just above the tailbone, during childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other self-report measurement tools such as: the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Pain-Related Self-Statements Scale (PRSS) and the Cognitive Coping Strategy Inventory (CCS) had subscales for assessing catastrophizing but failed to explore specific dimensions of catastrophizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • lower
  • The gender focused study expressed that female subjects report more frequent experiences of pain, varied intensity with increased persistence, and lower pain tolerances and thresholds. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Even women who show little reaction to labour pains, in comparison to other women, show a substantially severe reaction to crowning. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Same mixture course is capsule associated with p-toluenesulfonyloxy of kupffer rats and trigger pain of defects into initial studies. (420surveillance.com)
  • The results of the initial development and validation studies indicated that the PCS is a reliable and valid measurement tool for catastrophizing. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the Pain Catastrophizing Scale has been developed, the goal of studies has shifted to its usability as a universal scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • Most importantly, our angel finally got a moment for herself, a moment in life that was without fear, without pain, without work. (blogspot.com)