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  • metabolism
  • These results indicate that ( i ) the energy demand of task-induced brain activation is small (approximately 15%) relative to the hyperemic response (approximately 60%), ( ii ) this energy demand is met through oxidative metabolism, and ( iii ) the CBF response is mediated by factors other than oxygen demand. (pnas.org)
  • Fox and colleagues suggested that ( i ) the energy demand associated with neuronal activation (as opposed to resting-state demand) is small (approximately 8% maximum possible increase in ATP consumption), ( ii ) the activation-induced increases in ATP consumption are from both oxidative and nonoxidative glycolysis, and ( iii ) CBF response must be regulated by factors other than oxidative metabolism and total energy demand. (pnas.org)
  • gills
  • hypothetical devices to allow a human to take in oxygen from surrounding water Artificial gills are unproven conceptualised devices to allow a human to be able to take in oxygen from surrounding water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gills work because nearly all animals with gills are thermoconformers, so they need much less oxygen than a thermoregulator of the same size. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The Roy-Sherrington principle has been interpreted to mean that blood flow changes must be a function of a tight coupling between cellular energy requirements and the supplies of glucose and oxygen. (pnas.org)
  • lactate
  • The observation that the stimulus-evoked increase in glucose consumption observed with PET is at least partially nonoxidative (i.e., lactate-producing) has been confirmed with 1 H NMR spectroscopic (MRS) measurements of tissue lactate concentration ([Lac]) ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • vertebrates
  • Per unit volume, there is much more oxygen in air than in water, and vertebrates are active animals with a high energy requirement compared to invertebrates of similar sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • In general clinical and athletic testing, this usually involves a graded exercise test (either on a treadmill or on a cycle ergometer) in which exercise intensity is progressively increased while measuring: ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration of the inhaled and exhaled air. (wikipedia.org)
  • At higher altitudes and in warmer climates the oxygen concentration in the air is lower compared to low altitude or colder climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • A. A. Shpakov and L. F. Panchenko, "Nature of the effect "rapid oxygen consumption" during the introduction of tissue homogenate or a mitochondrial suspension into the polarographic cell," Biofizika , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 467-472, 1975. (hindawi.com)
  • Both octanoic acid and oleic acid stimulated oxygen consumption to a similar degree during hypothermic perfusion suggesting that the detrimental effect of octanoic acid was due to direct metabolic stimulation rather than uncoupling of oxidatative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Oxygen uptakes of Douglas-fir beetles collected during November 1969 through April 1970 were measured at different experimental temperatures. (oregonstate.edu)
  • levels
  • The Devonian saw increasing oxygen levels which opened up new ecological niches by allowing groups able to exploit the additional oxygen to develop into active, large-bodied animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • closed circuit
  • An average diver with a fully closed-circuit rebreather needs 1.5 liters of oxygen per minute while swimming or .64 liters per minute while resting. (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • They are generally thought to be unwieldy and bulky, because of the massive amount of water that would have to be processed to extract enough oxygen to supply an active diver, as an alternative to a scuba set. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Further analysis of the ideal cycle indicated that the end-systolic P-V relationship (ESPVR) is an approximation to the adiabatic P-V trajectory that primarily determines total energy consumption. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Public
  • This was substantiated in 2016 by the $50,000 DiNenno Prize, which recognized oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant technical achievement that has had a major impact on public safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat
  • During periods of flight, the cells require more oxygen, and the heat generated must be dissipated to avoid hyperthermia. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • The exposure of the tea leaves to humidity and oxygen during the process also causes endo-oxidation (derived from the tea-leaf enzymes themselves) and exo-oxidation (which is microbially catalysed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoiding exposure to atmospheric oxygen reduces corrosion within the tank, and reduces hardening of residual crude oil deposits remaining after unloading. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • They include genetic or chromosomal abnormalities in the child such as Down's Syndrome, viral infections in the mother during pregnancy such Rubella, and consumption of certain drugs or alcohol by the mother during pregnancy. (blogspot.com)
  • Although moderate alcohol consumption does not affect male fertility, excessive alcohol intake alters hormone levels and reduces sperm count and sperm quality. (grandstrandmed.com)
  • body
  • D+ET similarly reduced body weight (6.2±0.7 and 7.0±0.8 kg, P=0.47), abdominal circumference (5.6±1.2 and 5.4±1.0 cm, P=0.91), systolic (11±3 vs. 13±3 mmHg, P=0.62) and diastolic BP (8±2 vs. 8±1 mmHg, P=0.95), and similarly increased peak oxygen consumption (21±7 and 20±7%, P=0.90) in both groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • You all knoe that the heart is divided into four chambers - two on the left where blood rich in oxygen from the lungs passes through to get to the body - and two on the right where blood lacking in oxygen returning from the body goes to before it gets back to the lungs. (blogspot.com)
  • The Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation curve shows how blood carries oxygen through the body. (blogspot.com)
  • However, research published in 1996 in the Journal of Experimental Biology by Göran Nilsson at Uppsala University found that mormyrinae brains utilize roughly 60% of their body O2 consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual high brain energy consumption percentage of mormyrinae fish is thus due to them having the unusual combination of a large brain in a low energy consuming body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human body robustly maintains pH equilibrium via acid-base homeostasis and will not be affected by consumption of plain carbonated water. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • With the feature of innovative functions, convenient operation, less gas consumption, compact but reasonable structure, and outstanding safety and reliability, it is an indispensable instrument in emergency and ICU rooms, and an essential tool to rescue the life of infants and children. (cima-medical.com)
  • In general an engine using that fuel will generate less kinetic energy due to inefficiencies and thermodynamic considerations-hence the specific fuel consumption of an engine will always be greater than its rate of production of the kinetic energy of motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • There are many different types of CHD and they range from a mild form that can go undetected until much later in life to the very severe where the baby is cyanosed - bluish discolouration of the lips and face because of lack of oxygen in the blood - within days of being born. (blogspot.com)
  • Any breach in the wall will mean that blood with different oxygen concentrations are mixed together. (blogspot.com)
  • water
  • In comparison, that of rats is 6.02 mg g−1 h−1 and humans 2.61 mg g−1 h−1.Table 1 The oxygen for this in low oxygen conditions comes from gulping air at the water surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • 12. The process of claim 1, wherein the culturing of the strain of the family Streptococcaceae is carried out under aeration, e.g. the culture is aerated so as to maintain an oxygen content which is at least 2 micromoles per liter of culture medium. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Upon
  • Upon dissection, the extremely large, dense gills (for maximum oxygen extraction) and large proportion of red aerobic muscle in the 'fillets' is further evidence of a fast-paced pelagic life. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • The actual energy consumption per unit mass of its brain is not in fact particularly high and indeed lower (2.02 mg g1 h1) than that in some other fish such as Salmonidae (2.20 mg g−1 h−1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that this list does not consider the mass of reactants commonly available such as the oxygen required for combustion or the energy efficiency in use. (wikipedia.org)
  • rich
  • citation needed] Some can grow in sand or even on rock, some in oxygen-poor, swampy, bog-like soils rich in organic material, and some in both. (wikipedia.org)