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  • osteoblast
  • The process of osteocytogenesis is largely unknown, but the following molecules have been shown to play a crucial role in the production of healthy osteocytes, either in correct numbers or specific distributions: matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1), osteoblast/osteocyte factor 45 (OF45), Klotho, TGF-beta inducible factor (TIEG), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), E11 antigen, and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transformation from motile osteoblast to entrapped osteocyte takes about three days, and during this time, the cell produces a volume of extracellular matrix three times its own cellular volume, which results in 70% volume reduction in the mature osteocyte cell body compared to the original osteoblast volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the osteoblast transitions to an osteocyte, alkaline phosphatase is reduced, and casein kinase II is elevated, as is osteocalcin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immortal cell lines representing the late osteoblast/early osteocyte phenotype have been generated that stably express a collagen-GFP or collagen-mCherry fusion protein to fluorescently label type I collagen fibrils either red or green. (umsystem.edu)
  • stimulation
  • Moreover, the regulation of RANKL subcellular trafficking, such as OPG-mediated transport of newly synthesized RANKL molecules to lysosomal storage compartments, and the release of RANKL to the cell surface upon stimulation with RANK are confirmed to be functional in osteocytes. (wiley.com)
  • periosteal
  • hemichannels play a dominant role in regulating osteocyte survival, endocortical bone resorption, and periosteal apposition, and gap junction communication is involved in the process of bone remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • Although osteocytes have reduced synthetic activity and (like osteoblasts) are not capable of mitotic division, they are actively involved in the routine turnover of bony matrix, through various mechanosensory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The architectural properties of the osteocyte cell network provide a valuable basis for understanding the mechanisms of bone remodelling, mineral homeostasis, ageing and pathologies. (diva-portal.org)
  • RANKL
  • Now, Japanese research coordinated by Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) has revealed that osteocytes mainly express RANKL and are the key to remodeling of the bone surrounding teeth during orthodontic tooth movement. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recent studies showed that osteocytes serve as the major source of RANKL in the bone remodeling process. (wiley.com)
  • functional
  • Two transgenic mouse models driven by a DMP1 promoter with the overexpression of dominant negative Cx43 mutants were generated to dissect the functional contribution of Cx43 gap junction channels and hemichannels in osteocytes. (nih.gov)
  • inhibitors
  • Therefore, a major arm of PTH signalling in osteocytes involves SIK inhibition, and small molecule SIK inhibitors may be applied therapeutically to mimic skeletal effects of PTH. (harvard.edu)
  • calcium
  • His work has shown how in many cell types including now osteocytes, the load causes the tears which allows calcium to rush in to both rapidly heal tears and to set in motion inside a host of actions that, in this case, remodels bone. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Osteocytes use their micron-thin tentacles to communicate with each other and the scientists also learned that when one osteocyte gets tears, it appears to communicate its load to neighboring osteocytes so the calcium level goes up in those as well even without a tear. (medicalxpress.com)
  • regulatory
  • We therefore utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from an osteocyte cell line to identify potential regulatory regions of the Fgf23 gene. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • appears
  • Osteocytes appear to be enriched in proteins that are resistant to hypoxia, which appears to be due to their embedded location and restricted oxygen supply. (wikipedia.org)