• synaptic
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we address the question of whether the formation of olfactory long-term memory (LTM) could be associated with changes in the synaptic architecture of the MB networks. (jneurosci.org)
  • For this, we took advantage of the modular architecture of the honeybee MB neuropil, where synaptic contacts between olfactory input and MB neurons are segregated into discrete units (microglomeruli) which can be easily visualized and counted. (jneurosci.org)
  • axons
  • The specification of the right number and type of different neurons and the guidance of their axons to their target cells are essential in this process. (jneurosci.org)
  • retinoic acid rec
  • As previously described, retinoic acid induce craniofacial malformations stage dependently and different subtypes of retinoic acid receptor gene are expressed in chondrogenic and non-chondrogenic regions of facial mesenchyme derived from the cranial neural crest. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results together with region-specificity of retinoic acid receptor gene expression, retinoic acid is suggested to be involved in chondrogenesis of facial mesenchymal eclls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • single neuron
  • A single neuron typically has several inputs (dendrites) or sensors, a relatively long cord (axon) which typically branches many times, and has several outputs connecting to other neurons or muscle tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This situation is partly the result of the many different experimental settings, and the difficulty to separate the intrinsic properties of a single neuron from measurements effects and interactions of many cells (network effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • bipolar
  • For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reaction begins with the photoreceptor sending a message to a neuron called the bipolar cell through the use of an action potential, or nerve impulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • glia
  • Furthermore, many cells in the nervous system are not classified as neurons but instead are classified as glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Here, we applied calcium imaging to characterize the odorant response properties of single neurons from gene-targeted mice in which the green fluorescent protein is coexpressed with a particular OR. (jneurosci.org)
  • neural
  • Collectively, the results provide evidence for a role of locally regulated retinoid metabolism in neuroprotection and in determining population size of neurons at a late stage of neural circuit formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Given the restricted expression domain of the CNTF receptor α (CNTFR) in the developing forebrain germinal zone and adult forebrain periventricular area, we have examined the putative role of CNTFR/LIFR/gp130-mediated signaling in regulating forebrain neural stem cell fate in vivo and in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • 1. Neural coding of chemical mixtures was studied with the use of the peripheral olfactory system of the spiny lobster. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In that sense, biological neural models differ from artificial neuron models that do not presume to predict the outcomes of experiments involving the biological neural tissue (although artificial neuron models are also concerned with execution of perception and estimation tasks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory fatigue is an example of neural adaptation or sensory adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural receptor cells that process and receive stimulation go through constant changes for mammals and other living organisms to sense vital changes in their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second messenger pathways that allow the neural receptor cells to close or open channels in response to the changes of ion flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensilla
  • D , Mean firing rates ( n = 4 flies) of a neuron recorded in ab3 sensilla of ArcLight-expressing flies. (nih.gov)
  • vertebrate
  • This approach allows unambiguous identification of connexins and determination of the membrane "sidedness" and the identities of connexin coupling partners in homotypic and heterotypic gap junctions of vertebrate neurons. (deepdyve.com)
  • depolarize
  • This influx of positive ions and efflux of negative ions causes the neuron to depolarize, generating an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • After olfactory neurons depolarize in response to an odorant, the G-protein mediated second messenger response activates adenylyl cyclase, increasing cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration inside a cell, which then opens a cyclic nucleotide gated cation channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. (nih.gov)
  • Many molecular factors and cellular mechanisms synergize to ensure that each step, from progenitor proliferation to wiring of immature neurons, is tightly controlled. (springer.com)
  • Ultimately, biological neuron models aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the nervous system for the purpose of restoring lost control capabilities such as perception (e.g. deafness or blindness), motor movement decision making, and continuous limb control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the location and identity of the neurons, various mechanisms have been found to underlie ephaptic inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the mechanisms through which these receptors operate is unclear, recent discoveries have shown that mammals have at least two distinct types of thermoreceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Mind concepts (as in mind vs. body), and cognitive and behavioral aspects, are introduced where they have at least a fairly direct connection to physical aspects of the brain, neurons, spinal cord, nerve networks, neurotransmitters, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial
  • Other neurons bundles which are labeled cranial nerves, connect to the brain on one end, and to locations outside the brain on the other, without having a junction inside the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cranial nerves are actually huge collections of vast numbers of individual neurons that have found common routes though the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Anatomy of the olfactory system. (els.net)
  • Signal amplification could still be achieved in the olfactory system by increasing the probability of G protein activation. (physiology.org)
  • A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane, roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spiking neurons are known to be a major signaling unit of the nervous system, and for this reason characterizing their operation is of great importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking neuron models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problems with sensory neurons associated with the auditory system leads to disorders such as: Auditory processing disorder - Auditory information in the brain is processed in an abnormal way. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visual system can detect motion both using a simple mechanism based on information from multiple clusters of neurons as well as by aggregate through by integrating multiple cues including contrast, form, and texture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olfactory information is further processed and projected through a pathway to the central nervous system (CNS), which controls emotions and behavior as well as basic thought processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory system does not interpret a single compound, but instead the whole odorous mix, not necessarily corresponding to concentration or intensity of any single constituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This family is composed of pheromone binding proteins (PBP), which are male-specific and associate with pheromone-sensitive neurons and general-odorant-binding proteins (GOBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary sequences of thousands of olfactory receptors are known from the genomes of more than a dozen organisms: they are seven-helix transmembrane proteins, but there are (as of July 2011) no known structures of any OR. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • One possibility is that inhibitory epochs represent periods when principal neurons are synaptically inhibited by GABAergic local neurons (LNs). (jneurosci.org)
  • The cytokines that signal through the common receptor subunit gp130, including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M, have pleiotropic functions in CNS development. (jneurosci.org)
  • adaptation
  • Kurahashi T and Menini A (1997) Mechanism of odorant adaptation in the olfactory receptor cell. (els.net)
  • Olfactory fatigue, also known as odor fatigue or olfactory adaptation, is the temporary, normal inability to distinguish a particular odor after a prolonged exposure to that airborne compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influx of Ca2+ ions through this channel triggers olfactory adaptation immediately because Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II or CaMK activation directly represses the opening of cation channels, inactivates adenylyl cyclase, and activates the phosphodiesterase that cleaves cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • We provide evidence that RARE-dependent transcription and local homeostatic control of retinoids is required for the maintenance of a population of functional neurons with established projections and that inhibition of retinoid signaling results in postnatal and adult neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • interactions
  • The molecular mechanism by which a neuron forms a synapse and regulates subsynaptic membrane differentiation has been hypothesized to involve reciprocal interactions between the agrin receptor complex [agrin/muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK)] and neuregulin signaling pathways. (physiology.org)
  • 2000
  • Gogos JA, Osborne J, Nemes A, Mendelsohn M and Axel R (2000) Genetic ablation and restoration of the olfactory topographic map. (els.net)