• neurons
  • While their cell bodies are found in the central nervous system (CNS), α motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic nervous system-a branch of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all the alpha motor neurons involved in contracting a single muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other regions of the spinal cord, cells in this lamina are somatotopically organized, meaning that the position of neurons within the spinal cord is associated with what muscles they innervate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • It should be borne in mind, however, that the branched structure of the oculomotor nerve means that damage sustained at different points along its pathway, or damage caused in different ways (compression versus loss of blood supply, for example), will result in different muscle groups or, indeed, different individual muscles being affected, thus producing different presentation patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • contraction
  • Loss of motor function results in dorsiflexion, contractures of the toes, loss of the interosseous muscle function that leads to contraction of the digits, so-called hammer toes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, voluntary smiling will induce an involuntary contraction of the eye muscles causing the eye to squint when smiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one eye, in two antagonistic muscles, like the lateral and medial recti, contraction of one leads to inhibition of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sympathetic stimulation of the adrenergic receptors causes the contraction of the radial muscle and subsequent dilation of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, parasympathetic stimulation causes contraction of the circular muscle and constriction of the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of them is the autonomic constriction and contraction of certain muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • paralysis
  • abnormal alignment of one or both eyes, characterized by a turning inwards or outwards from the nose thus preventing parallel vision: caused by paralysis of an eye muscle, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • however, more severe infections can lead to hypoxia, meningitis , eye problems , heart involvement (myopericarditis), and rarely paralysis and/or muscle weakness. (rxlist.com)
  • spasm
  • Drugs such as tropicamide are used in medicine to permit examination of the retina and other deep structures of the eye, and also to reduce painful ciliary muscle spasm (see cycloplegia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical
  • Surgical Excision of Orbital Cysticercosis Lodged in Superior Oblique Muscle: Clinical Case Report. (nih.gov)
  • Surgical exploration of the superior oblique muscle was performed, and the cyst was removed from the eye and confirmed by histopathological examination. (nih.gov)
  • After surgery, an ocular motility examination revealed orthotropia in the primary position and downgaze, with mild restriction in levoelevation.Surgical removal could substitute for medical therapy when the cysticercosis is lodged in the superior oblique muscle, although, prior to surgery, important factors, such as patient requirements, surgical skills of the surgeon, and cyst placement, should be considered. (nih.gov)
  • weakness
  • It is a consequence of weakness or uneven development of one or more of the six small muscles that surround the eye. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oculomotor ataxia accompanies gait ataxia which causes dysarthria, muscle weakness, loss of joint position sense and limb dysmetria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • tarsal
  • Sympathetic postganglionic fibres also join the nerve from the plexus on the internal carotid artery in the wall of the cavernous sinus and are distributed through the nerve, e.g., to the smooth muscle of superior tarsal (Mueller's) muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pupillary
  • In people with diabetes and older than 50 years of age, an oculomotor nerve palsy, in the classical sense, occurs with sparing (or preservation) of the pupillary reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • Oculomotor palsy can arise as a result of a number of different conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • David A. Robinson discovered that the eye muscles require this dual velocity-position drive, and also proposed that it must arise in the brain by mathematically integrating the velocity signal and then sending the resulting position signal to the motoneurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervation
  • Thus, when presented with a threatening stimuli that activates the fight-or-flight response, this innervation contracts the muscle and dilates the iris, thus temporarily letting more light reach the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet another interpretation of the coelacanthiform basicranial muscle and its innervation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below is a table of each of the extraocular muscles and their innervation, origins and insertions, and actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esotropia
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical anesthesia requires a smaller amount of surgery and number of operated muscles to correct esotropia compared with classic surgery guidelines adapted to the surgeon's personal technique. (biomedsearch.com)