• Tissue Antigens
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (uptodate.com)
  • peptides
  • Antigens are usually peptides (amino acid chains), polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) or lipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a protein that spans the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, transports the peptides into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • APCs
  • When a foreign pathogen enters the body, specific cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs) engulf the pathogen through a process called phagocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • To make sure that foreign antigens are identified, some B cells serve as antigen -presenting cells (or APCs), scooping up these fragments all over the body, and sailing around offering them on stick-like projections to the cells they pass. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • immunological
  • The six main antigens used in immunological laboratories for detection are Ro, La, Sm, RNP, Scl-70 and Jo1, which are screened for by Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion techniques and confirmed by immunoblotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • It was expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors ( B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor ) of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The present invention also provides a method of immunizing a mammal against an antigen using the vaccine, and a method of inducing antigen -presenting mammalian cells to present specific antigens via the MHC class I processing pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are three compartements involved in this antigen presentation pathway: early endosomes, late endosomes or endolysosomes and lysosomes, where antigens are hydrolized by lysosome-associated enzymes (acid-dependent hydrolases, glycosidases, proteases, lipases). (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • The two primary methods of antigen retrieval are heat-mediated epitope retrieval (HIER) and proteolytic induced epitope retrieval (PIER). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with an antibody that matches the antigen's molecular structure . (wikipedia.org)
  • In immunology , an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody ) in the host organism . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term antigen originally described a structural molecule that binds specifically to an antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the relationship between antigen and antibody and how does that relationship influence hemolysis? (enotes.com)
  • It can happen as a response to several different bacteria and parasites, as well as to the antigen/antibody reaction. (enotes.com)
  • This can be due to the natural life-span of a red blood cell, or it may be as a result of an antigen-antibody interaction. (enotes.com)
  • On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood group Antigen Antibody Mohr, J. (1951). (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The immune system usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions . (wikipedia.org)
  • HLAs corresponding to MHC class II ( DP , DM , DOA , DOB , DQ , and DR ) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models. (hindawi.com)
  • viral
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lipids
  • Other heterophile antigen are responsible for some diagnostic serological test such as Weil felix reaction for typhus fever Paul bunnell test for infectious mononucleosis Cold aglutinin test in Primary atypical pneumonia Composition: chemically these are lipoprotein-polysaccharide complexes, possibly there are identical chemical groupings in the structure of mucopolysaccharids and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • They are then displayed by the antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ helper T cells , which then produce a variety of effects to eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • It is commonly accepted that most of these changes in leukocyte phenotype and activation, as well as in the induction of the inflammatory milieu, are dependent upon the ability of the parasite to excrete/secrete antigens with immunoregulatory properties [ 8 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ABH antigens secretion, i.e. presence (phenotype: secretor - Se) or absence (nonsecretor: se) of ABO blood group system antigens in saliva, milk, sweat, amniotic fluid, urine, feces and other body fluids is one of the most famous polymorphism in the field of blood antigens in body excretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. (hindawi.com)
  • receptors
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (springer.com)
  • amino
  • The complete amino acid sequence of an HLA-DR antigen-like ß chain as predicted from the nucleotide sequence: Similarities with immunoglobulins and HLA-A, B, C antigens. (springer.com)
  • citation needed
  • [ citation needed ] Foreign antigens presented by MHC class I attract killer T-cells (also called CD8 positive- or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • At the molecular level, an antigen can be characterized by its ability to bind to an antibody's variable Fab region . (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • Furthermore, another characteristic of Th2 responses is the suppression of the immune response to bystander antigens, which may compromise the effectiveness of vaccination [ 7 ] and alter the immune response to several other antigens, even autoantigens. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods
  • The antigen is a suspension of de-fatted leprosy bacilli which has been extracted with chloroform-ether and killed, either by heat, or by other effective methods. (wikipedia.org)