• Vaccines
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the increasing switch from live-attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines to subunit antigens , there is a need for novel antigen delivery technologies to improve vaccine efficacy and safety. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • APCs
  • When a foreign pathogen enters the body, specific cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs) engulf the pathogen through a process called phagocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • They have to be activated by the pMHC-I complexes of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctivae and tongue, with lower amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oncofetal
  • One example of an oncofetal antigen is alpha-fetoprotein, which is produced by hepatocellular carcinoma and some germ cell tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncofetal antigens are promising targets for vaccination against several types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterophile
  • Heterophile antigens are identical antigens found in the cells of different species. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Heterophile antigens: certain antigens of similar nature, if not identical, present in different tissues in different biological species, classes or kingdoms.Usually different species have different antigen set but hetereophile / hetereogenetic antigen is shared by different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other heterophile antigen are responsible for some diagnostic serological test such as Weil felix reaction for typhus fever Paul bunnell test for infectious mononucleosis Cold aglutinin test in Primary atypical pneumonia Composition: chemically these are lipoprotein-polysaccharide complexes, possibly there are identical chemical groupings in the structure of mucopolysaccharids and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • The six main antigens used in immunological laboratories for detection are Ro, La, Sm, RNP, Scl-70 and Jo1, which are screened for by Ouchterlony double immuno diffusion techniques and confirmed by immunoblotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • It was expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors ( B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor ) of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells , which in turn stimulate antibody -producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are then displayed by the antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ helper T cells , which then produce a variety of effects to eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gametogenesis offers an important role for many of these antigens in the differentiation, migration, and cell division of primordial germ cells, spermatagonia spermatocytes and spermatids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pan-T antigens are antigens found on all T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex (MAC), thus protecting cells from complement-mediated lysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification, however, is imperfect because many antigens thought to be tumor-specific turned out to be expressed on some normal cells as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer-testis antigens are antigens expressed primarily in the germ cells of the testes, but also in fetal ovaries and the trophoblast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, antigen can be presented directly (as described above) or indirectly (cross-presentation) from virus-infected and non-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all antigen-presenting cells utilize cross-presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLAs
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • pathway
  • There are three compartements involved in this antigen presentation pathway: early endosomes, late endosomes or endolysosomes and lysosomes, where antigens are hydrolized by lysosome-associated enzymes (acid-dependent hydrolases, glycosidases, proteases, lipases). (wikipedia.org)
  • transplantation
  • Compatibility of ABH antigens has important impacts on the prognoses of transplants of kidneys, livers and hearts, but less so on marrow, bone or cornea transplantation prognoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with an antibody that matches the antigen's molecular structure . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term antigen originally described a structural molecule that binds specifically to an antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the relationship between antigen and antibody and how does that relationship influence hemolysis? (enotes.com)
  • It can happen as a response to several different bacteria and parasites, as well as to the antigen/antibody reaction. (enotes.com)
  • This can be due to the natural life-span of a red blood cell, or it may be as a result of an antigen-antibody interaction. (enotes.com)
  • On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood group Antigen Antibody Mohr, J. (1951). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The uptake and processing of antigens by macrophages in the tissue is an initial, critical step in most immune responses. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Autoantibodies to these antigens are associated with particular connective tissue disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • ABH antigens secretion, i.e. presence (phenotype: secretor - Se) or absence (nonsecretor: se) of ABO blood group system antigens in saliva, milk, sweat, amniotic fluid, urine, feces and other body fluids is one of the most famous polymorphism in the field of blood antigens in body excretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Whether one T-cell receptor jointly recognizes a virus product in association with a class I antigen or whether separate T-cell receptors independently recognize the virus product and the class I antigen, respectively, is not yet resolved (for a recent review see ref. 2). (springer.com)