**converse for side-effects**- Number needed to harm - the converse for side-effects Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts RS (1988). (wikipedia.org)
- If a clinical endpoint is devastating enough without the drug (e.g. death, heart attack), drugs with a low NNH may still be indicated in particular situations if the number needed to treat (the converse for side effects, or the drug's benefit) is less than the NNH. (wikipedia.org)

**Harm**- NNT is similar to number needed to harm (NNH), where NNT usually refers to a therapeutic intervention and NNH to a detrimental effect or risk factor. (wikipedia.org)
- A negative number would not be presented as a NNT, rather, as the intervention is harmful, it is expressed as a number needed to harm (NNH). (wikipedia.org)
- Number needed to harm "An overview of measurements in epidemiology" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- Like many other epidemiological measures, the same equations can be used to measure a benefit or a harm (although the signs may need to be adjusted, depending upon how the data was collected. (wikipedia.org)
- The number needed to harm (NNH) is an epidemiological measure that indicates how many patients on average need to be exposed to a risk-factor over a specific period to cause harm in an average of one patient who would not otherwise have been harmed. (wikipedia.org)
- Intuitively, the lower the number needed to harm, the worse the risk-factor, with 1 meaning that, on average, every patient exposed is harmed. (wikipedia.org)
- The following is an example of calculating number needed to harm. (wikipedia.org)
- In case there can be more than one exposure in the specific period, the number (of patients) needed to harm is numerically equal to number of exposures needed to harm for one person if the risk per exposure isn't significantly altered throughout the specific period or by previous exposure, e.g. when the risk per exposure is very small or the "harm" is a very brief disease that doesn't confer immunity. (wikipedia.org)
- Misleading Statistics: The Problems Surrounding Number Needed to Treat and Number Needed to Harm" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)

**vaccinate**- One example is number needed to vaccinate. (wikipedia.org)
- Number needed to vaccinate (NNV) is a metric used in the evaluation of vaccines, and in the determination of vaccination policy. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, one study reported a number needed to vaccinate of 5206 for invasive pneumococcal disease. (wikipedia.org)

**clinicians**- Furthermore, practising clinicians also need a readily understandable tool for weighing the risks of various treatments. (bmj.com)
- A clinical review published in 2011 3 highlighted the need for clinicians to provide well informed advice to climbers on the prevention and management of high altitude illness. (bmj.com)
- Establishing a threshold level of risk for PE is needed by clinicians, since there is a growing body of evidence that details how different clinical risk factors can forecast PE risk. (plos.org)

**citation needed**- medical citation needed] Light therapy which strikes the retina of the eyes is used to treat diabetic retinopathy and also circadian rhythm disorders such as delayed sleep phase disorder and can also be used to treat seasonal affective disorder, with some support for its use also with non-seasonal psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- medical citation needed] The treatments involve exposing the skin to ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
- Relying on modern technology, such as miniaturization, fiber optics, and the like, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive prostate cancer treatment but is technically demanding and seldom done[citation needed] in the USA. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Clonazepam is also effective in the management of acute mania. (wikipedia.org)

**efficacy**- There is moderate evidence for the efficacy of blue and blue-red light therapies in treating mild acne, but most studies are of low quality. (wikipedia.org)
- By summing up A B i {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {AB_{i}}} over the entire population of interest, the model yields a quantified efficacy metric over "real" patients, called the Number of Prevented Events (NPE). (wikipedia.org)

**probabilities**- Alternatively, if the standard errors (SEs) of the survival probabilities of the treated and control group are given, confidence intervals can be estimated using algebraic calculations. (amegroups.com)

**placebo**- A greater number of serious infections and deaths were reported in patients treated with belimumab than in those treated with placebo. (wikipedia.org)
- This value is very useful in determining the therapeutic benefit or risk to patients in experimental groups, in comparison to patients in placebo or traditionally treated control groups. (wikipedia.org)

**cardiovascular**- The number needed to treat to prevent one cardiovascular event would then be 98.04 for 3.3 years. (wikipedia.org)
- Other cardiovascular risk factors were treated uniformly. (brainscape.com)
- The mean number of years since the diagnosis of diabetes was 11.5, and 40% of the patients had already had a cardiovascular event. (brainscape.com)
- The objective of the trial was to identify whether, in patients with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, treating to a systolic blood pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg is superior to a target of 140 mm Hg. (wikipedia.org)

**metric**- It is a specific application of the number needed to treat metric (NNT) that incorporates the implications of herd immunity. (wikipedia.org)

**median**- To prevent one or more new vertebral fractures, 48 women had to be treated for a median of 18 months for the total population. (wikipedia.org)

**inverse**- therefore, the inverse NNH will be number of subjects per event. (wikipedia.org)
- It is the inverse of the number needed to treat. (wikipedia.org)

**epidemiological**- The number needed to treat (NNT) is an epidemiological measure used in communicating the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication. (wikipedia.org)
- The need to express estimates of risk in an understandable manner is a challenge faced regularly by those who work with the results of epidemiological studies and try to convey their meaning to others. (bmj.com)

**practice**- Responder analysis may enable translation of clinical trial results into guidance for routine clinical practice by indicating the amount of effort needed to prevent the same event in comparable populations with different treatment options. (springer.com)
- In order to reflect the incremental effect of changing from current to 'best' practice, and to adjust for levels of compliance, the proportion eligible for treatment, Pe, is (Pb-Pt)*Pc, where Pt is the proportion currently treated, Pb is the proportion that would be treated if best practice was adopted, and Pc is the proportion of the population who are compliant with the intervention. (wikipedia.org)

**therapeutic**- CAC improves medication and lifestyle adherence and is cost-effective in specified populations, with the ability to effectively stratify the number needed to treat and scan for different therapeutic strategies and patient cohorts. (onlinejacc.org)

**risk**- Responder analysis based on absolute risk reduction (ARR, the arithmetic difference between events rates with and without treatment over a fixed time) and a related parameter, number needed to treat (NNT, the number of patients needed to treat over a fixed time to prevent one event) may provide more reliable parameters. (springer.com)
- Appendix: Risk, absolute risk, and number needed to treat (adapted and modified from Barratt et al. (springer.com)
- Other measures such as number needed to treat (NNT) and risk difference (RD) provide another perspective on the effectiveness of an intervention, and can facilitate clinical decision making. (amegroups.com)
- For each trial, on the x-axis the frequency (risk) of the studied criterion in the control group ( R c ) {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {(Rc)}} should be represented, and on the y-axis, the risk in the treated group ( R t ) {\displaystyle \scriptstyle {(Rt)}} (Figure 1 and Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
- Frequently used measures of risk and benefit identified by Jerkel, Katz and Elmore, describe measures of risk difference (attributable risk), rate difference (often expressed as the odds ratio or relative risk), Population Attributable Risk (PAR), and the relative risk reduction, which can be recalculated into a measure of absolute benefit, called the Number needed to treat. (wikipedia.org)
- Population Impact Measures are an extension of these statistics, as they are measures of absolute risk at the population level, which are calculations of number of people in the population who are at risk to be harmed, or who will benefit from Public Health interventions. (wikipedia.org)
- They are measures of absolute risk and benefit, producing numbers of people who will benefit from an intervention or be at risk from a risk factor within a particular local or national population. (wikipedia.org)
- Three statistical terms rely on EER for their calculation: absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction and number needed to treat. (wikipedia.org)

**outcome**- The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) is the number of patients you need to treat to prevent one additional bad outcome (death, stroke, etc. (cebm.net)
- For example, if a drug has an NNT of 5, it means you have to treat 5 people with the drug to prevent one additional bad outcome. (cebm.net)
- The NNT is the average number of patients who need to be treated to prevent one additional bad outcome (e.g. the number of patients that need to be treated for one of them to benefit compared with a control in a clinical trial). (wikipedia.org)

**acute**- At a dose of 250 mg daily the number needed to treat for acetazolamide to prevent acute mountain sickness was 6 (95% confidence interval 5 to 11). (bmj.com)

**effectiveness**- The effectiveness of light therapy for treating SAD may be linked to the fact that light therapy makes up for lost sunlight exposure and resets the body's internal clock. (wikipedia.org)
- The effectiveness of taking benzodiazepines along with antipsychotic drugs is unknown, and more research is needed to determine if benzodiazepines are more effective than antipsychotic drugs when urgent sedation is required. (wikipedia.org)

**prevent**- While reading over an analysis of decades-old studies of LSD as a treatment for alcoholism last week, I found that the so-called number needed to treat was 6 to prevent alcohol misuse. (kccu.org)
- Number needed to treat (NNT) the number of patients needed to treat over a fixed period of time to prevent one event (e.g., vertebral fracture) occurring, calculated as the reciprocal of the ARR (NNT = 1/ARR). (springer.com)
- Alternatively, the number needed to treat (NNT) is an expression of the number of patients who need to be treated to prevent one additional adverse event (2-4) . (acpjc.org)
- The number needed to treat with intensive therapy instead of standard therapy to prevent one death was 90. (wikipedia.org)
- Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia. (wikipedia.org)

**vertebral**- Event rate the number of patients experiencing an event (e.g., vertebral fracture) over a fixed period of time, as a proportion of the number of patients in the whole population. (springer.com)

**survival**- The article aims to provide a step-by-step tutorial on how to compute RD and NNT in survival analysis with R. For simplicity, only one measure (RD or NNT) needs to be illustrated, because the other measure is a reverse of the illustrated one (NNT=1/RD). An artificial dataset is composed by using the survsim package. (amegroups.com)
- In order to survive, B cells need survival factors. (wikipedia.org)

**disorders**- Clonazepam has also been found effective in treating other anxiety disorders, such as social phobia, but this is an off-label use. (wikipedia.org)
- Hyperekplexia Many forms of parasomnia and other sleep disorders are treated with clonazepam. (wikipedia.org)

**treatment**- Years-needed-to-treat to add 1 year of life is proposed to estimate treatment effects. (citizendium.org)
- A single number can help show how beneficial, or not, a treatment is. (kccu.org)
- The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. (omicsonline.org)
- There is an urgent need to increase access to surgical treatment across the world. (springer.com)
- The rate of colon cancer for a five-year treatment with the drug is therefore 1/6,000, as by treating 6,000 people with the drug, one can expect to reduce the number of colon cancer cases from 2 to 1. (wikipedia.org)
- If the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, treatment options significantly change, so most doctors that treat prostate cancer use a variety of nomograms to predict the probability of spread. (wikipedia.org)
- Approximately one-third of men who choose active surveillance for early stage tumors eventually have signs of tumor progression, and they may need to begin treatment within three years. (wikipedia.org)
- Restless legs syndrome can be treated using clonazepam as a third-line treatment option as the use of clonazepam is still investigational. (wikipedia.org)

**measure**- For a more detailed look at the NNT measure, and an interactive nomogram for converting between ARRs, RRRs and NNTs, see Zapletal E, LeMaitre D, Menard J and Degoulet P, The Number Needed to Treat: a clinically useful nomogram in its proper context, BMJ 1996;312:426-9. (cebm.net)
- For clinical decision making, however, it is more meaningful to use the measure "number needed to treat. (omicsonline.org)
- NEPP extends the well-known measure Number needed to treat (NNT) beyond the individual patient to the population. (wikipedia.org)

**people**- In other words, treat six people and one would benefit. (kccu.org)
- 2 With the ever increasing number of people ascending to high altitudes, medicines to deal with potential problems are becoming increasingly relevant to non-specialists, including general practitioners. (bmj.com)

**therefore**- 10 - 13 Therefore, there is an imminent need to assess the clinical applicability of structured desmopressin withdrawal compared with abrupt discontinuation. (aappublications.org)

**benefit**- The number needed to treat ( NNT ) is a way of summarizing the benefit of an intervention to improve health care. (citizendium.org)
- One way to gauge the likelihood that one patient will benefit is to calculate the number needed to treat (NNT) - that is, the number of patients who must be treated for one to benefit. (acponline.org)

**Example**- For example, the national drug policy for Indonesia drawn up in 1983 had the following objectives: To ensure the availability of drugs according to the needs of the population. (wikipedia.org)

**group**- Follow up time" is the number of individuals in each group multiplied by the number of years that each individual is followed. (wikipedia.org)
- As well as producing training programs and publications, the group is undertaking research in a number of member countries, focused primarily on changing behavior to improve drug use. (wikipedia.org)

**general**- There are right and wrong ways to conduct randomization, but in general a random number table or computer-generated randomization are the best ways. (brainscape.com)
- There a number of case studies described, many of which have general application for pharmacists working in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)

**disease**- Let's say we have a disease, and a pill to treat the disease, that should work over the course of a week. (wikipedia.org)

**years**- Benlysta was the first new drug to treat lupus after 56 years. (wikipedia.org)

**factors**- There are a number of factors that can affect the NNT. (wikipedia.org)

**study**- The study implies that patients receiving "standard" therapy were controlled similarly to all adults being treated for hypertension and that patients receiving "intensive" therapy had a lower mean SBP compared to all adults being treated for hypertension, but neither conclusion is true when compared to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (wikipedia.org)

**studies**- The small number of studies included in meta-analysis represents a major limitation. (aappublications.org)

**signs**- The signs of the numbers needed to treat and the numbers needed to hurt are reversed: NNT is 3.33 and NNH is −10. (wikipedia.org)

**approach**- Natural numbers, which are used in the number needed to treat approach, are easily understood by non-experts. (wikipedia.org)

**effective**- According to the American Cancer Society, there is some evidence that ultraviolet light therapy may be effective in helping treat certain kinds of skin cancer, and ultraviolet blood irradiation therapy is established for this application. (wikipedia.org)
- Clonazepam has been found effective in treating epilepsy in children, and the inhibition of seizure activity seemed to be achieved at low plasma levels of clonazepam. (wikipedia.org)

**found**- A 2012 Cochrane review found tentative but unclear evidence of improved fertility among males treated for varicocele. (wikipedia.org)

**different**- There are a number of different types of screening method available. (wikipedia.org)

**however**- however, this has a number needed to treat of 7 for varicocelectomy and 17 for embolization. (wikipedia.org)

**certain**- Photodynamic therapy (often with red light) is used to treat certain superficial non-melanoma skin cancers. (wikipedia.org)