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  • form
  • A nucleic acid hybridization assay employing an immobilized or immobilizable polynucleotide probe selected to form DNA.RNA or RNA.RNA hybrids with the particular polynucleotide sequence to be determined. (google.ca)
  • By labeling such complementary probe nucleic acids with some readily detectable chemical group, it was then made possible to detect the presence of any polynucleotide sequence of interest in a test medium containing sample nucleic acids in single stranded form. (google.ca)
  • detection
  • In addition to the recombinant DNA field, the analytical hybridization technique can be applied to the detection of polynucleotides of importance in the fields of human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and food science, among others. (google.ca)
  • Nucleic acid sequence variations have been implicated in many diseases, and reliable detection and quantitation of DNA/RNA biomarkers can inform effective therapeutic action, enabling precision medicine. (nih.gov)
  • complementary
  • The nucleic acid shell gives the conjugate unique, programmable chemical and biological recognition abilities that offer greater binding strengths and higher duplex stabilities compared to the same sequence of linear DNA, cooperative melting behavior with DNA strands of a complementary sequence, and enhanced cellular uptake without the use of transfection agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • A dense nucleic acid loading was achieved through a series of salt additions, in which positively charged counterions were used to reduce electrostatic repulsion between adjacent negatively charged DNA strands and thereby enable more efficient DNA packing onto the nanoparticle surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional forms of nucleic acids (e.g., single strands, linear duplexes, and plasmids) are important biological machinery for the storage and transmission of genetic information (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • microarray
  • Several approaches, such as microarray hybridization, have become extremely popular tools for specialists in biochemistry and biomedicine, while the potential of many other advantageous techniques seems to be underestimated. (indigo.ca)
  • ELISA
  • Generally, in the case of nucleic acid hybridization, monovalent salt concentration and temperature are controlled for hybridization and wash stringency, contrary to a traditional ELISA, where the salt concentration will usually be fixed for the binding and wash steps (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The tRNA has a side consisting of the anticodon, a three-base code that matches up with a portion of the mRNA molecule called the codon, a series of three bases that stand for an amino acid. (reference.com)
  • The tRNA leaves behind the amino acid it was carrying. (reference.com)
  • The tRNA molecule then goes to find another amino acid. (reference.com)
  • Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, amino acid substitutions that change the electric charge of the enzyme (such as replacing aspartic acid with glutamic acid) are simple to identify by gel electrophoresis, and this forms the basis for the use of isozymes as molecular markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • DNA replication and transcription of DNA into RNA both rely upon nucleotide hybridization, as do molecular biology techniques including Southern blots and Northern blots, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and most approaches to DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100-1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Nucleic acid fragments have been obtained from the genome of mycobacteria, and applications of the nucleic acid fragments in the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections are described. (google.com)
  • 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the non-radioactively labelled fragments are present in the hybridization fluid at a concentration of not less than 0.2 μg/ml. (google.com)
  • whereas
  • Immunocytochemistry is a practical procedure for rapid specific diagnosis of liver stored for months, whereas RNA-RNA hybridization is a sensitive technique which can be applied to material stored for years. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, DNA origami uses DNA hybridization interactions to realize a final structure, whereas SNAs and other forms of three-dimensional nucleic acids (structures templated with a triangular prism, rod, octahedra, or rhombic dodecadhedra-shaped nanoparticles) utilize the nanoparticle core to arrange the linear nucleic acid components into functional forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • This polyvalency, along with the high density and degree of orientation described above, helps to explain why a three-dimensional nucleic acid structure fundamentally composed of linear, one-dimensional nucleic acids exhibits dramatically different properties than its lower-dimensional constituents (Fig. 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The inorganic nanoparticle core (in addition to gold, silver, iron oxide, silica, and semiconductor materials have also been used) serves two purposes: 1) it imparts upon the conjugate novel physical and chemical properties (e.g. plasmonic, catalytic, magnetic, luminescent), and 2) it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of nucleic acids into the dense arrangement that gives rise to many of their functional properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the SNA structure can be synthesized independent of nucleic acid sequence and hybridization, instead relying upon robust chemical bond formation between nanoparticles and nucleic acid adsorbates. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) - defined as structures that are an arrangement of densely packed, highly oriented nucleic acids in a spherical geometry - were first introduced in 1996 by the Mirkin group at Northwestern University. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • PMID 8944026), profiling gene expression throughout the lifecycle of the malaria-causing protozoan Plasmodium falciparum, his discovery of the SARS virus, and pioneering virus discovery using gene hybridization array and DNA sequencing technologies (Wang et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • However, due to the random noise inherited in the imaging and hybridization process, identifying statistically significant DNA copy number changes in aCGH data is challenging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More particularly, this invention is directed to a process for preparing labeled single-stranded nucleic acids by use of an alkylating agent containing a label moiety, where the word label is intended to include moieties which may be detected both directly and indirectly. (google.com)
  • i.e. these algorithms satisfy some or all the design requirements for DNA oligonucleotides at the time of hybridization (which is the core of the DNA computing process) and hence do not suffer from the problems of self - hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Crick was not satisfied with this hypothesis given that the four bases of RNA are hydrophilic and that many amino acids prefer interactions with hydrophobic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • units
  • Stabilization of parallel triplexes by twisted intercalating nucleic acids (TINAs) incorporating 1,2,3-triazole units and prepared by microwave-accelerated click chemistry. (wikipedia.org)