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  • components
  • From the original setting of mouse ESC culture, scientists identified the active components leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), which maintain the pluripotency in ESCs through activating the Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway and inducing the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) genes, respectively [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, nuclear fractionation analysis revealed that the hr protein is associated with components of the nuclear matrix. (biologists.org)
  • soluble
  • The coverage exhibited residues of the conserved polo-box domain and the two DUF domains.The protein was predominantly soluble, with an average hydrophobicity of -0.478. (wikipedia.org)
  • large proteins
  • We now demonstrate that in the importin α/β and transportin import pathways, efficient in vitro transport of large proteins, in contrast to smaller proteins, requires hydrolyzable GTP and the small GTPase Ran. (rupress.org)
  • lamin
  • These `lamin membrane arrays' are attached to the inner nuclear membrane but are not continuous with it. (biologists.org)
  • Among the few well-characterized INM proteins are lamin B receptor (LBR), the lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), the lamina-associated polypeptide-2 (LAP2), emerin and MAN1. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • and help to repress gene expression, both by tethering specific genomic regions to the nuclear periphery, and by interaction with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cap and nuclear cap-binding protein have many function in mRNA biogenesis including splicing, 3'-end formation by stabilizing the interaction of the 3'-end processing machinery, nuclear export and protection of the transcripts from nuclease degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequently, the interacting pair of proteins may have been identified by studies of human genetics, indicating the interaction can be disrupted by unfavorable mutations, or they may play a key role in the normal biology of a "model" organism like the fruit fly, yeast, the worm C. elegans, or mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells encode diverse RBPs, approximately 500 genes, with unique RNA-binding activity and protein-protein interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct physical interaction between this protein and AP endonuclease 1 during long-patch base excision repair provides coordinated loading of the proteins onto the substrate, thus passing the substrate from one enzyme to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • pore complex
  • Previous work has shown that the transport of some small protein cargoes through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) can occur in vitro in the absence of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis. (rupress.org)
  • transport receptors
  • Many proteins and RNAs are translocated through the NPC by shuttling transport receptors of the karyopherin family (importins and exportins), which recognize NLSs or nuclear export signals on the cargo. (rupress.org)
  • kinase
  • The activation of p38α is mediated by its upstream kinase and associated proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The protein is also predicted to have a polo-box domain (PBD) of polo-like kinase 4 (plk4), which has predicted conservation in distant orthologs from the clade Aves. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, C5orf34 is predicted to be nuclear, thus it has potential involvement in gene regulation and cell proliferation seeing as these are two primary signal transduction pathways involve nuclear kinase proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Phyre2 server provided a predicted human protein structure that indicated domains of plk polo-box of the serine/threonine-protein kinase plk4. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis indicates C5orf34 as a phosphoprotein and supports structural predictions of it being a kinase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • We describe the identification of mouse genes encoding proteins that are confined to nuclear compartments by splicing endogeneous gene sequences to a promoterless betageo reporter, using a gene trap approach. (biologists.org)
  • The sequences of 11 trapped genes were ascertained, and characterisation of endogenous protein distribution in two cases confirmed the validity of the approach. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the nuclear scaffold places limits on what genes can and can not be expressed within a given cell and, hence, may serve a basis for cell identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hes genes code nuclear proteins that suppress transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • The distribution of this protein in the oocyte and its behaviour during development suggest that it might be involved in the packaging of RNAs during transcription. (biologists.org)
  • These targets include mRNA, which codes for proteins, as well as a number of functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • These non-coding RNAs include microRNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNA), as well as splicesomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • envelope
  • The NPLOC4 - UFD1 - VCP complex regulates spindle disassembly at the end of mitosis and is necessary for the formation of a closed nuclear envelope (PubMed:10811609, PubMed:11740563, PubMed:11781570, PubMed:12411482, PubMed:12644454, PubMed:14636562). (rcsb.org)
  • Inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins are proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • The nuclear cap-binding complex is a functional heterodimer and composed of Cbc1/Cbc2 in yeast and CBC20/CBC80 in multicellular eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent pathway, which is part of Protein degradation. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent pathway and in Protein degradation . (uniprot.org)
  • The nuclear scaffold is predicted to be relatively permanent for a given cell type, but induction of a signaling pathway-by ligand binding, cell:cell contact, or some other mechanism-can temporarily shift the expression profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • As nuclear RNA emerges from RNA polymerase, RNA transcripts are immediately covered with RNA-binding proteins that regulate every aspect of RNA metabolism and function including RNA biogenesis, maturation, transport, cellular localization and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Inhibition by Impβ results from depletion nuclear RanGTP, and, in support of this mechanism, expression of mRFP-Ran reversed the inhibition. (rupress.org)
  • Once all regulatory proteins, etc. have been synthesized and the scaffold has been established, the cell has attained its own specific expression profile. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is thought to be critical to development of the dopamine phenotype in the midbrain, as mice without NURR1 are lacking expression of this phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • While NURR1 is a key protein, there are other factors required as research shows that solely expressing NURR1 fails to stimulate this phenotypic gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the rat, although the gene for PRM2 is present, expression of this protein is extremely small because of limited transcription due to an inefficient promoter in addition to altered processing of the mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • There is extensive, predicted phosphorylation of C5orf34, with 32 phosphoserines and 7 phosphothreonines being conserved in orthologs of the human C5orf34 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Implications for the synthesis of CaaX-containing proteins are discussed and the difference from intranuclear fibrous lamina annulate lamellae formations is emphasized. (biologists.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene removes 5' overhanging "flaps" (or short sections of single stranded DNA that "hang off" because their nucleotide bases are prevented from binding to their complementary base pair-despite any base pairing downstream) in DNA repair and processes the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • NURR1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) is a protein that is encoded by the Hes1 gene, and is the mammalian homolog of the hairy gene in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hes proteins also heterodimerize with bHLH repressors such as Hey1 and Hey2, a process which also blocks transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Immunoblotting of two-dimensional gel electrophoregrams of oocyte nuclear proteins showed that these antibodies recognized proteins whose relative molecular masses and isoelectric points were 80×103 and 6á4, 175×103 and 5 and 270×103 and 7, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • components
  • From the original setting of mouse ESC culture, scientists identified the active components leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), which maintain the pluripotency in ESCs through activating the Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway and inducing the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) genes, respectively [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, nuclear fractionation analysis revealed that the hr protein is associated with components of the nuclear matrix. (biologists.org)
  • genes
  • Dr. Rubin adds that if such an oncogenic protein has the power to throw the switch on thousands of genes, a novel treatment may be able to turn that switch off. (freedomsphoenix.com)
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • Conversely, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 and of the same mitochondrial genes was increased in brown adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny and a new species of Sparassis (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): evidence from mitochondrial atp6, nuclear rDNA and rpb2 genes" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid Seq
  • The primary structure, or amino acid sequence identity, of the proteins between paralogs is ~60% identical and between orthologs is ~90%, whilst between vertebrates and Drosophila or C. elegans is only 33-41% identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • Full length protein (Human). (abcam.cn)
  • NFIX protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of human blood group systems and proteins in the 1950s suggested that the Andamanese peoples were more closely related to Oceanic peoples than African pygmy peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have created transgenic (Tg) rats expressing an antisense GHS-R mRNA under the control of the promoter for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), thus selectively attenuating GHS-R protein expression in the Arc. (jci.org)
  • Daxx is uniformly expressed throughout the body, except in the testes and thymus, which have especially high expression of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 1999 from the original name, Ten-a, and the major site of the protein expression being in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • Dr. Skovronsky established Avid Radiopharmaceuticals in July 2005 with the goal of finding a dye that could be injected into the body, would cross the blood-brain barrier and attach itself to amyloid protein deposits in the brain. (wikipedia.org)