• olfactory recepto
  • In contrast, a permanent loss of smell may be caused by death of olfactory receptor neurons in the nose or by brain injury in which there is damage to the olfactory nerve or damage to brain areas that process smell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly to olfactory receptor neurons, taste receptors (gustatory receptors) in taste buds interact with chemicals in food to produce an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper motor
  • The vestibulospinal tract is an upper motor neuron tract consisting of two sub-pathways: The medial vestibulospinal tract projects bilaterally from the medial vestibular nucleus within the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the ventral horns in the upper cervical cord (C6 vertebra). (wikipedia.org)
  • medial
  • In the medulla, at the dorsal column nuclei, the first order neuron synapses with the second order neuron, which then decussates (crosses over to the other side of the Central Nervous System) into the medial lemniscus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medial vestibulospinal tract is a group of descending extrapyramidal motor neurons, or efferent fibers found in the anterior funiculus, a bundle of nerve roots in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medioventral periolivary (MVPO) region, also known as the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, a diffuse region of neurons located medial to the MSO, gives rise to the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleus
  • The second order neuron then carries the information to the venteral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus and then the somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral superior olive (LSO), a distinct nucleus of neurons located lateral to the MSO, gives rise to the lateral olivocochlear system (LOCS). (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • Relatively recently, a third subsystem of neurons that have been named non-noradrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters (because they use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter) have been described and found to be integral in autonomic function, in particular in the gut and the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target-non-neuronal-cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • These receptor neurons contain receptors, called olfactory receptors, that are activated by the odor molecules in the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor cells, otherwise known as the primary olfactory neurons, are in the neuroepithilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervation
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The MOCS gives rise to a frequency-specific innervation of the cochlea, in that MOC fibres terminate on the outer hair cells at the place in the cochlea predicted from the fibres' characteristic frequency, and are thus tonotopically organised in the same fashion as the primary afferent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • However, it is not known whether the characteristic frequencies of the LOCS fibres coincide with the characteristic frequencies of the primary afferent neurons, since attempts to selectively stimulate the fibres of the LOCS have been largely unsuccessful. (wikipedia.org)
  • tract
  • Like other descending motor pathways, the vestibulospinal fibers of the tract relay information from nuclei to motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to these classically defined olivocochlear neurons, advances in tract tracing methods helped reveal a third class of olivocochlear neurons, termed shell neurons, which surround the LSO. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • facilitate
  • Wikipedia explains that behaviors that are unexpected can therefore be symptoms of other problems within the body, in particular with the various chemical neurotransmitters that facilitate signal transmission between neurons. (reference.com)