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  • stimuli
  • We conclude that information about tactile stimuli in timing of spikes in primary afferents, even if limited to the first spikes, surpasses that contained in firing rates and that these measures of afferents' responses might capture different aspects of the stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • For example, a touch stimulus creates a sensation in the brain only after the afferent neurons sense the stimuli and send the information about the stimuli. (reference.com)
  • Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The two primary types of chemoreceptors are: Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the vomeronasal organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the threshold of HT channels was lowered in the presence of PGE2 (a compound that sensitizes neurons to mechanical stimuli and mechanical hyperalgesia) which further supports a role for HT channels in the transduction of mechanical stimuli into nociceptive neuronal signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers believe that the ability of various somatosensory receptor neurons to respond to specific stimuli is a result of "combinational expression" of various ion channels in each specific neuronal class. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interneurons act collectively, process and make sense of inbound stimuli, and stimulate effector neurons acting as an integration center. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • To investigate whether activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in damaged and/or undamaged primary afferents participates in neuropathic pain after partial nerve injury, we examined the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the L4 and L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. (jneurosci.org)
  • Together, our results demonstrate that the L5 SNL induces differential activation of MAPK in injured and uninjured DRG neurons and, furthermore, that MAPK activation in the primary afferents may participate in generating pain hypersensitivity after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • All of these neuropathic pain models are made by partial nerve injury, in which some primary afferents are axotomized and the others are spared. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, there has been no study examining MAPK activation in adjacent uninjured DRG neurons after partial nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • those found in the central nervous system are called neurons or nerve cells, and they are responsible for carrying messages within the body. (reference.com)
  • The vagal nerve conveys primary afferent information from the intestinal mucosa to the brain stem. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Two examples where the nerve ending of the distal process is encapsulated as such are, Meissner's corpuscles, which render the distal processes of mechanosensory neurons sensitive to stroking only, and Pacinian corpuscles, which make neurons more sensitive to vibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses of Merkel nerve endings are characterized by a vigorous response to the onset of a mechanical ramp stimulus (dynamic), and then continued firing during the plateau phase (static). (wikipedia.org)
  • Innervation
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • rats
  • Peptide immunocytochemistry in afferent neurons from lower gut in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Single sensory neurons innervating the cornea were recorded in vivo extracellularly from the trigeminal ganglion of isoflurane-anesthetized rats with tungsten microelectrodes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recordings were made from CCK-sensitive RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons in halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed male Sprague-Dawley rats. (physiology.org)
  • In all cases ( n = 6 neurons in 6 individual rats), dizocilpine inhibited the effects of CCK, PBG, and PE on RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. (physiology.org)
  • Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single long varicose axon, which projects to the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldosterone is not necessary for HSD2 neuron activation because this can be evoked by sodium deprivation even in rats without adrenal glands, which are the exclusive source of circulating aldosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagal afferents
  • This review addresses the role for both cholecytokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) released from enteroendocrine cells and acting as paracrine agents on the terminals of vagal afferents in responses to a number of luminal signals. (eurekaselect.com)
  • insensitive
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (pnas.org)
  • Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. (pnas.org)
  • Neurons insensitive to L-glutamate were more broadly distributed, with a number being located in laminae III-V. Kynurenic acid, 2-amino-4- phosphonobutyric acid, and 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid selectively antagonized rapid, short-lasting synaptic components of the dorsal cord potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • axons
  • Neurons have special cell parts called dendrites and axons. (reference.com)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer to the axons that relay sensory information into the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and the spinal cord). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are the excitable cells that process and transmit these reflex signals through their axons, dendrites, and cell bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axons directly facilitate intercellular communication projecting from the neuronal cell body to other neurons, local muscle tissue, glands and arterioles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Projections
  • After the cobalt ions were precipitated and intensified, we studied the central projections of the filled neurons within the ganglionic structures. (uncg.edu)
  • Our description of the central projections of the hair afferents is the first in the literature. (uncg.edu)
  • The efferent projections (axonal output) of HSD2 neurons have been investigated to a significant degree using conventional neuroanatomical tracers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional information about the efferent projections of HSD2 neurons can be found in ref. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • In the injured L5 DRG, the L5 SNL induced the activation of ERK, p38, and JNK in different populations of DRG neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast, in the uninjured L4 DRG, the L5 SNL induced only p38 activation in tyrosine kinase A-expressing small- to medium-diameter neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the contribution of JNK activation in sensory neurons to pain is unknown, although peripheral axotomy has been shown to induce JNK/SAPK activation in DRG neurons ( Kenney and Kocsis, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. (eurekaselect.com)
  • There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron system exists in which we imitate certain motor actions when we view others performing the same action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • An immediate-early gene, c-fos, has been used to study the activation and inactivation of HSD2 neurons extensively in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axon
  • These neurons are of the pseudo-unipolar type, meaning they have an axon with two branches that act as a single axon, often referred to as a distal process and a proximal process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soma-the cell body of the neuron Axon: which relays information from the soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a neuron, the dendrite receives information from another neuron's axon at the synapse, and the axon sends information to the next neuron's dendrites, even though the dendrite may be covered with myelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impulse is limited to a single bifurcated axon, or a neuron whose axon branches into two divisions and does not cause a general response to surrounding tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex results in a localized response to only the locally innervated cells of the single neuron where the signal originated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axon reflex pathway does not include an integration center or synapse that relays communication between neurons in the spinal cord reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • The effector neurons leaving the integration center transmit a response to the original tissue the reflex arose resulting in a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • 2) These neurons displayed the highly sensitive response to cooling (less than 1oC) of cornea as well as a "paradoxical" response to noxious heat (greater than 47oC), and responded to menthol applied to the cornea in a concentration dependent manner, properties consistent with those found in the innocuous "cold" thermoreceptors in the skin of mammals. (arvojournals.org)
  • extensively
  • Although information in tactile afferent neurons represented by firing rates has been studied extensively over nearly a century, recent studies suggest that precise spike timing might be more important than firing rates. (diva-portal.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Molecular studies are under way to gain insight into the mechanisms and the properties of these neurons to help discover new avenues for the treatment of dry eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • Both of these actions decrease GABAergic input onto VTA neurons, revealing two mechanisms by which endogenous or exogenous opioids can activate VTA neurons, including DA neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • While it seems firmly established that the cardiovascular effects of CCK are dependent on vagal afferent mechanisms, it would seem prudent to seek support for this concept at the single neuronal level. (physiology.org)
  • medulla
  • Systemic administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic vasomotor neurons. (physiology.org)
  • In accord with its effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, CCK selectively inhibits the discharge of a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • Other neurons continue ipsilateral, same side, to the medulla oblongata. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the neurons are coming from the lower limbs are carried by the fasciculus gracilis into the medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • relays
  • Note: the neuron can consist of three parts: Dendrite that receives the information and relays it to the Soma, or cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABAergic
  • However, VTA DA neurons also receive dense GABAergic inputs from extrinsic sources and opioid control of these extrinsically derived inputs also robustly controls VTA DA neuron firing (see below). (jneurosci.org)
  • peripheral sensory
  • We now report the existence of a specific type of peripheral sensory neuron that monitors the fluid level of the ocular surface and display properties consistent with their role in the modulation of basal tearing. (arvojournals.org)
  • stimulus
  • 3) These neurons increased their discharge rates in response to hypertonic solutions covering the ocular surface, suggesting that increased concentration of solutes caused by evaporation of fluid from the ocular surface may be another adequate stimulus for these neurons. (arvojournals.org)
  • reflex
  • These innocuous "cold" corneal thermoreceptors were found to respond to drying, cooling and evaporation of cornea consistent with their role in activating the afferent limb of the basal tearing reflex. (arvojournals.org)
  • Some neurons terminate in the spinal cord, where they contribute to a reflex response. (wikipedia.org)
  • subpopulation
  • Second, the selectivity of CCK for a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons may suggest that CCK-sensitive neurons preferentially receive vagal afferent input from the gastrointestinal tract ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • Their lack of expression of the aforementioned markers suggests that HSD2 neurons form a unique subpopulation within the NTS. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The S and T afferent neurons of the TCMRO convey signals to the CNS solely by means of graded changes in membrane potential. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is believed, however, that sensory neurons employ fast, mechanically gated cation channels, and that the depolarization that results across the membrane is followed by the generation of a sodium-dependent action potential at the transduction site. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • Several other experimental conditions that reduce extracellular fluid volume-including PEG-hypovolemia, diuresis, and adrenalectomy-also activate HSD2 neurons, although none do so to as great an extent as simply removing sodium from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • vagal
  • Study showed that the perikarya and central terminals of vagal afferents are invariably enriched in CART and devoid of melanin-concentrating hormone (zeige PMCH ELISA Kits ) and that neuropeptidergic profile of the CART-positive vagal afferents is remarkably stable across the energy balance spectrum. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on vagal afferent fibers and neurons within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), providing anatomical evidence for their role in arterial baroreflex modulation. (rti.org)
  • sensory neuron
  • The complexity of the reflex can be estimated by examining the time delay, or latency, between the electrical stimulation of the sensory neuron and the corresponding motor response, as measured by EMG (electromyography). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene, and the neurons expressing a given gene all transmit information to one or two spatially invariant glomeruli in the antennal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baroreceptors are a type of mechanoreceptor sensory neuron that is excited by stretch of the blood vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some neuronal subpopulations in the SN, such as the noradrenergic cell group A2 and the aldosterone-sensitive HSD2 neurons project as far rostrally as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medioventral periolivary (MVPO) region, also known as the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, a diffuse region of neurons located medial to the MSO, gives rise to the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral superior olive (LSO), a distinct nucleus of neurons located lateral to the MSO, gives rise to the lateral olivocochlear system (LOCS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus basalis, also nucleus basalis of Meynert is a group of neurons in the substantia innominata of the basal forebrain which has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • 9. The fusion protein according to claim 8, wherein the Targeting Moiety is an agonist of a receptor present on a primary nociceptive sensory afferent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Primary motor (M1) and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, although anatomically and functionally distinct, share an intriguing cellular component: corticospinal neurons (CSP) in layer 5B. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that CB 2 receptor activation stimulates release from keratinocytes of the endogenous opioid β-endorphin, which then acts at opioid receptors on primary afferent neurons to inhibit nociception. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activation of keratinocyte CB 2 receptors results in the release of the endogenous opioid peptide β-endorphin, which then acts on primary afferent neurons to inhibit nociception. (pnas.org)
  • Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). (nih.gov)
  • 14% of submucosal plexus neurons are sensory neurons - Dogiel type II, also known as enteric primary afferent neurons or intrinsic primary afferent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MOCS gives rise to a frequency-specific innervation of the cochlea, in that MOC fibres terminate on the outer hair cells at the place in the cochlea predicted from the fibres' characteristic frequency, and are thus tonotopically organised in the same fashion as the primary afferent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is not known whether the characteristic frequencies of the LOCS fibres coincide with the characteristic frequencies of the primary afferent neurons, since attempts to selectively stimulate the fibres of the LOCS have been largely unsuccessful. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervate
  • These results indicated that CSPs exhibit area-specific modifications on an otherwise conserved synaptic organization, and that different afferents innervate M1-CSP dendritic domains in a source-specific manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • The SN projects to, among other regions, the reticular formation, parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, hypothalamus and thalamus, forming circuits that contribute to autonomic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscles
  • The responses of muscle spindles to changes in length also play an important role in regulating the contraction of muscles, by activating motor neurons via the stretch reflex to resist muscle stretch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ia afferent signal is also transmitted polysynaptically through interneurons (Ia inhibitory interneurons), which inhibit alpha motoneurons of antagonist muscles, causing them to relax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here it is posited that gamma motoneurons are activated in parallel with alpha motoneurons to maintain the firing of spindle afferents when the extrafusal muscles shorten. (wikipedia.org)
  • In preparations with movement-related sensory inputs, the muscles and the motor neuron outputs to muscles are left intact, allowing sensory feedback from the moving limb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • enteric
  • The enteric nervous system refers to the entire system of neurons that govern the gastrointestinal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of the enteric nervous system control the motor functions of the system, in addition to the secretion of gastrointestinal enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Single action potentials from Meissner's corpuscle, Pacinian corpuscle and Ruffini ending afferents are directly linked to muscle activation, whereas Merkel cell-neurite complex activation does not trigger muscle activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • stretch
  • This raises the resting potential of the endings, thereby increasing the probability of action potential firing, thus increasing the stretch-sensitivity of the muscle spindle afferents. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • We investigated whether the anatomical changes in the afferent TC pathways were accompanied by changes in excitability of the excitatory layer IV neurons. (nih.gov)
  • inputs
  • These neurons provide motor inputs to both layers of the muscularis externa, and provide both parasympathetic and sympathetic input. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT) concentration is critical for "normal" topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC) afferent circuits. (nih.gov)
  • muscle
  • They increase the firing rate of Ia and II afferents at a given muscle length (see schematic of fusimotor action below). (wikipedia.org)
  • spiral
  • In comparison, shell neurons spiral both apically and basally, and can cover large territories within the organ of Corti. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Stromal cell derived factor [SDF1;also referred to as CXCLis a pleiotropic chemokine that is essential for the normal development of neurons and glia but also functions in the initiation of glial metastasis. (grantome.com)
  • The swollen end of a telodendron is known as the axon terminal which joins the dendron or cell body of another neuron forming a synaptic connection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, LOCS class cell bodies within the LSO are referred to as intrinsic LOCS neurons, while those surrounding the LSO are referred to as shell, or extrinsic, LOCS neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • a translocation domain that is capable of translocating the protease or protease fragment from within an endosome, across the endosomal membrane and into the cytosol of the nociceptive sensory afferent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Brain
  • Elaborate branching allows for the simultaneous transmission of messages to a large number of target neurons within a single region of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory neurons in other parts of the body) from where the sensory neurons carry the information about the odorant molecules impinging on the antenna to the antennal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • Neurons and glia release SDF1 not only as part of the metastatic process but also in response to head trauma and as a result of neuroinflammatory disorders and neuroinfection. (grantome.com)