• neurons
  • The timing of spikes in principal neurons has millisecond precision, and I asked what are the roles of inhibition in shaping the temporal codes that emerge from different parallel local neural circuits. (unibas.ch)
  • Next I characterised a subpopulation of genetically-identified neurons in the mouse retina, in order to compare the precise timing of inhibition in different circuits at a high temporal resolution. (unibas.ch)
  • Optical inhibition of striatal neurons promotes focal neurogenesis and neurobehavioral recovery in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 837-847, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibition in single sensory neurons was discovered and investigated starting in 1949 by Haldan K. Hartline when he used logarithms to express the effect of Ganglion receptive fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only influences that neurons can have on one another are excitation, inhibition, and-through modulatory transmitters-biasing one another's excitability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational neuroscience focuses on the description of functional and biologically realistic neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics, distinguishing it from psychological connectionism and disciplines such as machine learning, neural networks, and computational learning theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortical
  • This behavior strongly depends on the initial working point (WP) of the neural populations (between the linear and the upper saturation region of a sigmoidal function) and on how the cortical activation or deactivation can move the WP in the upper saturation region ERD or in the linear region ERS, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • investigate the ne
  • To investigate the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon, we orthogonally combined the spatial IOR with the Simon effect in the present event-related fMRI study. (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying orienting of attention in the human N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist and 5-HT2A agonist models of psychosis. (uzh.ch)
  • spatial
  • By combining spatial inhibition of return (IOR) which implicates the orienting network with some executive function tasks (e.g., the Stroop and the flanker tasks) which implicate the executive network, researchers consistently found that the interference effects are significantly reduced at cued compared to uncued locations, indicating the functional interaction between the two attention networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, left precentral gyrus was involved in the neural interaction between spatial IOR and the Simon effect by showing significantly higher neural activity in the "Cued_Congruent" condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenic patients show abnormalities in spatial orienting of attention, particularly a deficit of inhibition of return (IOR). (uzh.ch)
  • brain
  • Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neural stem cell protects aged rat brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury through neurogenesis and angiogenesis," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1138-1147, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Human neural stem cell grafts modify microglial response and enhance axonal sprouting in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury," Stroke , vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 516-523, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischaemic brain," Brain , vol. 134, Part 6, pp. 1777-1789, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell grafts inischemic rat brain," Molecular Therapy , vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1282-1291, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • The term "computational neuroscience" was introduced by Eric L. Schwartz, who organized a conference, held in 1985 in Carmel, California, at the request of the Systems Development Foundation to provide a summary of the current status of a field which until that point was referred to by a variety of names, such as neural modeling, brain theory and neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theory
  • Experimentalbeitrag zur Theorie der Hemmungsnerven (Experimental contribution to the theory of neural inhibition) In: Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, they then experienced inhibition of target RT on the cued side compared to the uncued side after 300 ms. In order to explain the IOR mechanism, Anne Treisman and Gary Gelade's theory of visual search was expounded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • As such, this area has been found to be associated with verbal and design fluency, ability to maintain and shift set, planning, response inhibition, working memory, organisational skills, reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • optical
  • Inhibition paradigms use a single optical fiber to deliver IR light, resulting in a single hotspot within the nerve. (spie.org)
  • Preliminary computational modeling suggests that using two axially adjacent optical fibers reduces peak temperatures required for infrared neural inhibition (INI). (spie.org)
  • Radiant exposures required for inhibition using a single fiber were reduced by ~37.4% by using two axially adjacent optical fibers. (spie.org)
  • refers
  • Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an orientation mechanism that briefly enhances (for approximately 100-300 milliseconds (ms)) the speed and accuracy with which an object is detected after the object is attended, but then impairs detection speed and accuracy (for approximately 500-3000 milliseconds). (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • This model is still popular today for mathematical, biological, and artificial neural networks studies because of its simplicity (see a recent review) and, in fact, has seen recent experimental and biophysical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • It should be noted that inhibition is a physiological process whereby the probability of a neuron generating an action potential is reduced. (frontiersin.org)
  • intensity
  • This is known to cause reactive inhibition, hence a reduction in the intensity of the activity with each repetition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, since a point at an intersection is surrounded by more intensity than a point at the middle of a line, the intersection appears darker due to the increased inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, the phrase "tonic inhibition" should only be used strictly when action potentials become less likely. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore the role of inhibition is to detect 'irrelevance' in the visual scene, only allowing the ganglion cell to fire at specific time points relating to functions that are both parallel and complementary to the other cell types. (unibas.ch)
  • activity
  • Pulsed infrared (IR) light has been used in multiple animal models to inhibit neural activity. (spie.org)
  • Pleural abdominal nerves were dissected out, and suction electrodes were applied to electrically stimulate and record neural activity. (spie.org)
  • However, here, we use the phrase "tonic inhibition" to describe the activity of extrasynaptic GABA A receptors, even when the effect on action potential generation has not been quantified, since this has become widely accepted as a convention within the field. (frontiersin.org)
  • recordings
  • Thus, recordings of tonic inhibition have been made in many different labs under a variety of different experimental conditions, many of which are likely to impact upon the magnitude of the tonic conductance. (frontiersin.org)
  • systems
  • These results suggest that the inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat by s.c., but not i.t., nicotine is mediated through the sympathoadrenal and sympathetic systems. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The concept of neural inhibition (in motor systems) was well known to Descartes and his contemporaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first graduate educational program in computational neuroscience was organized as the Computational and Neural Systems Ph.D. program at the California Institute of Technology in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • return
  • Inhibition of return results from oculomotor activation, regardless of whether it was produced by exogenous signals or endougenously. (wikipedia.org)
  • One form of cue that can be implemented in an inhibition of return task are exogenous cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cues play an equally important role of directing attention in Inhibition of Return, however the way in which they do so differs on a neurological level as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • networks
  • Another important example is neural fields, continuum limit neural networks where average firing rates evolve based on integro-differential equations. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • There is no evidence that the current irradiation schemes alters nerve functionality, however lower temperatures provide a safer environment for sustained inhibition. (spie.org)
  • different
  • This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. (frontiersin.org)
  • study
  • In this study we evaluated the mechanisms underlying s.c. and spinal intrathecal (i.t.) nicotine inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat (J. Pharmacol. (aspetjournals.org)
  • light
  • By reducing peak temperatures, neural block using IR light will subject nerves to lower peak temperatures and provide a more research and clinically relevant technology. (spie.org)