• distal
  • This is not to ignore the fact that distal portions of the nephron may enhance their rate of Na+ and fluid transport when Na+ and fluid escape proximal reabsorption, and that the fine adjustment of salt and water balance is regulated within the distal nephron. (springer.com)
  • Epithelial sodium channels facilitate Na⁺ reabsorption across the apical membranes of epithelia in the distal nephron, respiratory and reproductive tracts and exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distal RTA is characterized by a failure of acid secretion by the alpha intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct of the distal nephron. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal medulla
  • A countercurrent system in the renal medulla provides the mechanism for generating a hypertonic interstitium, which allows the recovery of solute-free water from within the nephron and returning it to the venous vasculature when appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medullary refers to the renal medulla, while the juxta (Latin: near) refers to the relative position of the renal corpuscle, which in these nephrons are near the medulla (but still in cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. (harvard.edu)
  • work
  • The greater gradient in the deep medulla make this type of nephron do more "work" than more shallow nephrons, and their vertical nature makes them easier to illustrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • Many constituents of the blood are filtered from the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule at one end of the nephron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. (harvard.edu)
  • include
  • In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. (harvard.edu)
  • development
  • therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual's nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide. (harvard.edu)