• Cell
  • Outside stimuli such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) activate cell surface receptors such as Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Receptor Activators of NF-κB (RANK). (aacrjournals.org)
  • cancer
  • Mutations in the genes for NF-κB itself or its inhibitors such as IκBs often found in cancer cells can cause cells to accelerate their proliferation or confer resistance to apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)