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  • substrates
  • Binding modes of native substrates (A) GDS, (B) GSH and (C) NADPH in smTGR (left) and sjTGR (right). (nih.gov)
  • With NADH and FMN as substrates, a Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed a series of convergent lines characteristic of a ternary-complex kinetic model. (asm.org)
  • oxidation
  • These investigations by Klucas and collaborators also showed that the oxidation of NADH and reduction of Lb3+ was undetectable when O2 was removed from the reaction system, but all were restored upon re-addition of O2, which indicated that the FLbR activity is O2-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • This reaction permits the utilization of the reducing properties of NADPH by the respiratory chain and in the reverse direction it allows the reduction of NADP for biosynthetic purposes. (curehunter.com)
  • NADPH can also be used as a reducing substrate for the LuxG reaction, but with much less efficiency than NADH. (asm.org)
  • electrons
  • they play a unique role in the electron transport chain (ETC). In the inner bacterial membrane, electrons from NADH and succinate pass through the ETC to the oxygen, which is then reduced to water. (ecmdb.ca)
  • reduction
  • In the presence of energy (ATP) it catalyzes reversibly the reduction of NAD by NADPH to yield NADP and NADH. (curehunter.com)
  • In 2013, renalase was claimed to oxidize α-NADH (the normal form of NADH is the β anomer) to β-NAD+, with concomitant reduction of O2 (dioxygen) to H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). (wikipedia.org)
  • This form of NAD is one of three products that are formed from non-enzymatic reduction of β-NAD+ in addition to 4-dihydroNAD (β-NADH), 2-dihydroNAD (2DHNAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • To explore the binding interactions of these compounds, we selected six compounds to dock into the NADPH binding site, the active site of the TR domain and the Grx active site of both smTGR and sjTGR using AutoDock 4.2.5.1. (nih.gov)
  • form
  • instead 6-dihydroNAD (6DHNAD) was identified as the substrate, a molecule with highly similar spectrophotometric characteristics and equilibrium concentrations as those reported for α-NAD(P)H. 6DHNAD is an isomeric form of β-NADH that carries the hydride in the 6-position of the nicotinamide base as opposed to the metabolically active 4-position. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENZYMES
  • In the case for NADH-dependent heterologous reductive reactions, a possible constraint is the availability of cytosolic NADH, which may be limited due to competition with native oxidative enzymes that act to maintain redox homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reaction
  • The reaction is stimulated by the simple mechanisms of substrate availability (isocitrate, NAD+ or NADP+, Mg2+ / Mn2+ ), product inhibition (by NADH (or NADPH outside the citric acid cycle) and alpha-ketoglutarate), and competitive feedback inhibition (by ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The products of the reaction are alpha-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH + H+/NADPH + H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • help
  • Since the pentose phosphate pathway produces additional NADPH during metabolism, limiting this step will help to correct the already evident imbalance between NAD(P)H and NAD+ cofactors and reduce xylitol byproduct formation. (wikipedia.org)