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  • alcohol
  • Prior to the discovery of this enzyme, methanol oxidation in Gram-negative bacteria had been shown to be by way of an (NAD+) independent alcohol dehydrogenase found originally in Pseudomonas M27. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeast, plants, and many bacteria, some alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the opposite reaction as part of fermentation to ensure a constant supply of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, sequencing of the ADH1B gene (responsible for production of an alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptide) shows two variants, in which there is an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) that leads to either a Histidine or an Arginine residue in the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first-ever isolated alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was purified in 1937 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer's yeast). (wikipedia.org)
  • The alcohol dehydrogenases comprise a group of several isozymes that catalyse the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, respectively, and also can catalyse the reverse reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • ubiquinone
  • Furthermore, reduced forms of ubiquinone and vitamin E quinone have been shown to possess antioxidant properties that are superior to their non-reduced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADH
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (S)-dihydroorotate and NAD + , whereas its 3 products are orotate , NADH , and H + . (wikivisually.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on NADH or NADPH with a quinone or similar compound as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this shuttle system, NADH generated by cytosolic metabolisms including glycolysis is reoxidized to NAD+ reducing DHAP to G3P, and the reducing equivalent can be used for generating a proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane by coupling and oxidizing G3P and reducing quinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of sugars by glycolysis which yield pyruvate that in turn is decarboxylated by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase generating acetyl-CoA according to the following reaction scheme: CH3C(=O)C(=O)O−pyruvate + HSCoA + NAD+ → CH3C(=O)SCoAacetyl-CoA + NADH + CO2 The product of this reaction, acetyl-CoA, is the starting point for the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol-3-phosphate d
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate is synthesized by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a glycolysis intermediate, with glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible redox conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a.k.a. glycerone phosphate, outdated) to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Older terms for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase include alpha glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not the same as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), whose substrate is an aldehyde not an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reactions catalyzed by cytosolic (soluble) and mitochondrial GPDH are as follows: There are two forms of GPDH: The following human genes encode proteins with GPDH enzymatic activity: Cytosolic Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that reduces dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2), catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and concomitantly transfers two electrons from FAD to the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytosolic together with the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase work in concert. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the glycerol-3-phosphate has moved through the inner mitochondrial membrane it can then be oxidised by a separate isoform of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that uses quinone as an oxidant and FAD as a co-factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • DHAP
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) are molecules so small that they can permeate the mitochondrial outer membrane through porins and shuttle between two dehydrogenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • NAD(P)H + H+ → + NAD(P)+ It is also synthesized by phosphorylating glycerol generated upon hydrolyzing fats with glycerol kinase, and can feed into glycolysis or glyconeogenesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADPH
  • Cullen JJ, Hinkhouse MM, Grady M, Gaut AW, Liu J, Zhang YP, Weydert CJ, Domann FE, Oberley LW: Dicumarol inhibition of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase induces growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer via a superoxide-mediated mechanism. (drugbank.ca)