• genome
  • The Gammaretrovirus core encapsidation signal is an RNA element known to be essential for stable dimerisation and efficient genome packaging during virus assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creation of double-stranded DNA occurs in the cytosol as a series of these steps: Lysyl tRNA acts as a primer and hybridizes to a complementary part of the virus RNA genome called the primer binding site or PBS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, some viruses integrate into the cell genome facilitating stable expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus-based vectors are much safer in this respect as they always integrate at the same site in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the future, gene therapy may provide a way to cure genetic disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis or even haemophilia A. Because these diseases result from mutations in the DNA sequence for specific genes, gene therapy trials have used viruses to deliver unmutated copies of these genes to the cells of the patient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute myeloid
  • Elevated PIM2 levels have also been found in primary blasts from acute myeloid leukemia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, the oncogene has been implicated in multiple human cancers, including prostate cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and other hematopoietic malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • Paul Berg used a modified SV40 virus containing DNA from the bacteriophage λ to infect monkey kidney cells maintained in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Safety: Although viral vectors are occasionally created from pathogenic viruses, they are modified in such a way as to minimize the risk of handling them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune
  • Immune response to viruses not only impedes the delivery of genes to target cells but can cause severe complications for the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune deficiencies in mammals, reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Virus Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delivery of genes by a virus is termed transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is unclear what role these viruses have in the cancer development, it is believed that they are most prevalent during the tumor developing stage of the cancer by inhibiting tumor suppressing genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over normal B-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and regulation of signal transduction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Bats can have a prolonged exposure to a variety of pathogens without showing any warning signs, which leads to the debated belief that bats have to ability to develop immunity to viruses that may harm other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • There have also been discoveries of murine gammeretroviruses in lung cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most distinctive property of the first-line IFITM3 defense is its preventive action before the virus can fuse with the cell," said virologist Michael Farzan, associate professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at HMS and the New England Primate Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • This work was expanded by showing that a human variant of IFITM3 exists, with around 1/400 people carrying a mutated form of the gene, that may increase their risk of contracting severe influenza virus infection. (wikipedia.org)