• genome
  • The Gammaretrovirus core encapsidation signal is an RNA element known to be essential for stable dimerisation and efficient genome packaging during virus assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creation of double-stranded DNA occurs in the cytosol as a series of these steps: Lysyl tRNA acts as a primer and hybridizes to a complementary part of the virus RNA genome called the primer binding site or PBS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, some viruses integrate into the cell genome facilitating stable expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus-based vectors are much safer in this respect as they always integrate at the same site in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • To this end, retroviral Gag polyproteins use short sequences called late (L) domains to promote virus release by recruiting members of the host vacuolar protein sorting (vps) machinery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain because it is responsible for the receptor-binding function of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Env protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also has a trimeric structure of heterodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies and experiments have shown that a specific protein, the Pokeweed Antiviral Protein (PAP), could possibly be used therapeutically in T-cell leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS) have found an antiviral protein, IFITM3 that could slow and even prevent deadly viruses from infecting and spreading. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a few experiments, this certain antiviral protein defended cells from viruses such as influenza (including influenza A virus subtype H1N1), West Nile virus, dengue virus, and HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person's susceptibility to viral infections could be linked to variations in this antiviral protein and also how severe a person reacts to certain viruses like influenza or the more dangerous H1N1 strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycomb complex protein BMI-1 also known as polycomb group RING finger protein 4 (PCGF4) or RING finger protein 51 (RNF51) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMI1 gene (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Any disruption in this sequence, such as mutations in L domain motifs or dominant-negative interference with the function of ESCRT-III members or the VPS4 ATPase, adversely affects virus release. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the future, gene therapy may provide a way to cure genetic disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis or even haemophilia A. Because these diseases result from mutations in the DNA sequence for specific genes, gene therapy trials have used viruses to deliver unmutated copies of these genes to the cells of the patient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute myeloid
  • Elevated PIM2 levels have also been found in primary blasts from acute myeloid leukemia patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, the oncogene has been implicated in multiple human cancers, including prostate cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and other hematopoietic malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • This work was expanded by showing that a human variant of IFITM3 exists, with around 1/400 people carrying a mutated form of the gene, that may increase their risk of contracting severe influenza virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • Paul Berg used a modified SV40 virus containing DNA from the bacteriophage λ to infect monkey kidney cells maintained in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Safety: Although viral vectors are occasionally created from pathogenic viruses, they are modified in such a way as to minimize the risk of handling them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune
  • Immune response to viruses not only impedes the delivery of genes to target cells but can cause severe complications for the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • They cause various sarcomas, leukemias and immune deficiencies in mammals, reptiles and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Virus Genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delivery of genes by a virus is termed transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is unclear what role these viruses have in the cancer development, it is believed that they are most prevalent during the tumor developing stage of the cancer by inhibiting tumor suppressing genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970
  • Reverse transcriptases were discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in RSV virions and independently isolated by David Baltimore in 1970 at MIT from two RNA tumour viruses: R-MLV and again RSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • release
  • These interactions recruit components of the cell's budding machinery that are critical for virus release. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, other ubiquitin ligases such as WWP1, Nedd4.1, Nedd4.2, and Nedd4.2s did not rescue this release-deficient virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This is a taxonomic list of viruses according to the most recent (2014) taxonomy release by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), placed into the groups of the Baltimore classification system. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over normal B-Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and regulation of signal transduction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Bats can have a prolonged exposure to a variety of pathogens without showing any warning signs, which leads to the debated belief that bats have to ability to develop immunity to viruses that may harm other species. (wikipedia.org)