• genome
  • However, this is only possible when the host cell is co-infected with a helper virus which provides functions it needs to be able to replicate which it does not code for in its own genome such as a reverse transcriptase and some major structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gammaretrovirus core encapsidation signal is an RNA element known to be essential for stable dimerisation and efficient genome packaging during virus assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creation of double-stranded DNA occurs in the cytosol as a series of these steps: Lysyl tRNA acts as a primer and hybridizes to a complementary part of the virus RNA genome called the primer binding site or PBS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, some viruses integrate into the cell genome facilitating stable expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus-based vectors are much safer in this respect as they always integrate at the same site in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • In the future, gene therapy may provide a way to cure genetic disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis or even haemophilia A. Because these diseases result from mutations in the DNA sequence for specific genes, gene therapy trials have used viruses to deliver unmutated copies of these genes to the cells of the patient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work was expanded by showing that a human variant of IFITM3 exists, with around 1/400 people carrying a mutated form of the gene, that may increase their risk of contracting severe influenza virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Berg used a modified SV40 virus containing DNA from the bacteriophage λ to infect monkey kidney cells maintained in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Safety: Although viral vectors are occasionally created from pathogenic viruses, they are modified in such a way as to minimize the risk of handling them. (wikipedia.org)
  • MMTV
  • At the other end of the spectrum, MMTV (Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus has only 4 sites for oligosaccharide addition (two on gp52 and two on gp37). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970
  • Reverse transcriptases were discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in RSV virions and independently isolated by David Baltimore in 1970 at MIT from two RNA tumour viruses: R-MLV and again RSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • reverse
  • M-MLV reverse transcriptase from the Moloney murine leukemia virus is a single 75 kDa monomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse-transcribing DNA viruses, such as the hepadnaviruses, can allow RNA to serve as a template in assembling and making DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In virus species with reverse transcriptase lacking DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity, creation of double-stranded DNA can possibly be done by host-encoded DNA polymerase δ, mistaking the viral DNA-RNA for a primer and synthesizing a double-stranded DNA by similar mechanism as in primer removal, where the newly synthesized DNA displaces the original RNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Though not used by the ICTV, Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and regulation of signal transduction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • There have also been discoveries of murine gammeretroviruses in lung cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most distinctive property of the first-line IFITM3 defense is its preventive action before the virus can fuse with the cell," said virologist Michael Farzan, associate professor of microbiology and molecular genetics at HMS and the New England Primate Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baltimore
  • This is a taxonomic list of viruses according to the most recent (2014) taxonomy release by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), placed into the groups of the Baltimore classification system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In a study of vaccinated mice, it was possible to identify the immunological epitopes required for protection against the virus, thus determining the types of immunological responses necessary or required for protection against it. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • In a study with 48 patients who had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and lymphocytic leukemia, hPim-2 expression was analyzed using in-situ hybridization, quantitative RT-PCR and FACS analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • It causes leukemia directly by interfering with the normal growth and differentiation processes of lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The studies showed higher levels of expression in NHL over normal lymphocytes as well as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia over normal B-Cells. (wikipedia.org)