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  • mutations
  • Until now, most scientists believed that it was likely that a cluster of relatively common genetic mutations was to blame. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We use a pseudo infinite-sites model for mutations ( i.e. , where the number of sites is finite but new mutations can appear only at nonpolymorphic locations) and a finite-sites model for recombination and remove locations that are no longer polymorphic, at regular intervals. (genetics.org)
  • The total number of new mutations added to a chromosome in any particular generation is modeled as a Poisson random variable with mean equal to the per-generation per-sequence mutation rate u . (genetics.org)
  • It has been proposed that autism spectrum disorders are caused by combinations of multiple genetic variants, or mutations that affect many essential genes to shape different aspects of cognition and behavior. (autismspeaks.org)
  • Scientists in the laboratory of Lauren Weiss, PhD, an associate professor of psychiatry and member of the Institute for Human Genetics at UCSF, looked at genetic mutations that cause either the deletion or duplication of a region of DNA on chromosome 16 that includes 29 genes implicated in important cellular functions in the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • algorithm
  • In this research, a learning algorithm was implemented to determine the structure and the parameters of Bayesian networks that model GRNs from real data. (army.mil)
  • We present an exact forward-in-time algorithm that can efficiently simulate the evolution of a finite population under the Wright-Fisher model. (genetics.org)
  • Our algorithm is implemented in the C++ programming language and we simulate data sets under the Wright-Fisher model assumptions. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is proposed for this portfolio optimization model. (hindawi.com)
  • At last, simulations are made on randomly chosen ten stocks for 60 days (during January 2, 2014 to April 2, 2014) from Wind database (CFD) in Shenzhen Stock Exchange, and the results indicate that the proposed model is reasonable and the proposed algorithm is effective. (hindawi.com)
  • The origins of Quantum Monte Carlo methods are often attributed to Enrico Fermi and Robert Richtmyer who developed in 1948 a mean field particle interpretation of neutron-chain reactions, but the first heuristic-like and genetic type particle algorithm (a.k.a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary programming was introduced by Lawrence J. Fogel in the US, while John Henry Holland called his method a genetic algorithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Sebat acknowledges that the data presented is merely consistent with the rare mutation gene model and not direct proof of it. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In this Phase 1 STTR we propose to generate a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in a strain of minipigs (Ossabaw) with a genetic propensity for Type 2 diabetes. (sbir.gov)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This STTR proposes to create a pig model of metabolic syndrome and rapid atherosclerosis by knocking out the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in the Ossabaw minipig. (sbir.gov)
  • Using zebrafish as a model, Dr Yuk Fai Leung studies the gene networks behind ocular diseases. (purdue.edu)
  • Identification of the potential tumor suppressor gene at the insertion site will reveal important information about the genetic basis of the zebrafish retinal tumors. (arvojournals.org)
  • We believe we've found an approach that is most relevant to humans, in that our models of gene dysfunction mimic the etiology of Parkinson's disease rather than its pathology- meaning its beginning rather than its end," says Matthew Farrer, the study's lead investigator and a researcher at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health at UBC. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The model-known as a VPS35 D620N knock-in (VKI)-induces the biology of a disease-causing gene rather than the symptoms of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While efforts should be made to evaluate the predictive validity of these genetic rat models, we propose that they have the advantage (over mouse knockouts, for example) of better representing "normal" genetic, neurobiological and phenotype variation, thus allowing the study of associations among them by means of genetic mapping or gene expression studies. (scirp.org)
  • The second mechanism is a "toxic gain of function" of the DUX4 gene, which is the first time in genetic research that a "dead gene" has been found to "wake up" and cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 19 August 2010, a paper entitled A Unifying Genetic Model for Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy was published in Science showing that the candidate gene DUX4 undergoes a "toxic gain of function" as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the region distal to the last D4Z4 repeat. (wikipedia.org)
  • zebrafish
  • The purpose of this study is to establish the genetic, pathological and histological similarities between the zebrafish retinal tumor model and human inherited retinoblastoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the new study, which was published this month in the open-access publication PLoS ONE, the scientists found a way to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) to model two rare human genetic disorders: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome and laminopathies. (healthcanal.com)
  • Intriguingly, the study also found that farnestyl transferase inhibitor (FTI), a new class of anti-cancer drugs, reduced abnormalities in the nuclear membrane and prevented significant aging in the embryonic zebrafish models, which survived to adulthood but with a shortened lifespan. (healthcanal.com)
  • Utilizing our 'embryonic senescence' zebrafish model, our next goal will be to find modifier genes as well as chemical compounds to reverse accelerated aging and restore the normal aging process," Kishi said. (healthcanal.com)
  • The first author of the study, "Embryonic Senescence and Laminopathies in a Progeroid Zebrafish Model," is Eriko Koshimizu of Harvard University and the Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology. (healthcanal.com)
  • diseases
  • Because of this oddity, the mice could be valuable animal models for human disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, according to geneticists at Cornell and Stanford universities. (innovations-report.com)
  • Finding the genetic root of ocular diseases allows for more accurate and effective treatment, and Leung explores both Western and Traditional Chinese medicine. (purdue.edu)
  • This is a robust model system of human aging that corresponds directly to the human genes involved in these diseases," said Scripps Florida Assistant Professor Shuji Kishi, who led the study. (healthcanal.com)
  • This model is ready now and can be used to screen and develop chemical compounds to treat these and other age-related diseases. (healthcanal.com)
  • disorders
  • It is recognized that developing valid animal models is essential for the research on the neurobiological mechanisms of (and treatments for) psychiatric disorders, even when these are as complex as schizophrenia. (scirp.org)
  • The laminopathies are a cluster of at least 13 different genetic disorders, whose symptoms range from muscular dystrophy to premature aging. (healthcanal.com)
  • cellular
  • Learning Objective: Understand the features of the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) that make it an ideal model genetic system to study how many highly conserved eukaryotic cellular processes are carried out. (slideserve.com)
  • particle
  • The terminology "propagation of chaos" originated with the work of Mark Kac in 1976 on a colliding mean field kinetic gas model The theory of mean field interacting particle models had certainly started by the mid-1960s, with the work of Henry P. McKean Jr. on Markov interpretations of a class of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also quote an earlier pioneering article by Theodore E. Harris and Herman Kahn, published in 1951, using mean field but heuristic-like genetic methods for estimating particle transmission energies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resampled or Reconfiguration Monte Carlo methods) for estimating ground state energies of quantum systems (in reduced matrix models) is due to Jack H. Hetherington in 1984 In molecular chemistry, the use of genetic heuristic-like particle methods (a.k.a. pruning and enrichment strategies) can be traced back to 1955 with the seminal work of Marshall. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • This hidden diversity could then be unleashed by extreme changes in the environment or by molecular switches, releasing previously cryptic genetic variation that can then contribute to a rapid burst of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular studies of these viruses can now be achieved using genetic approaches to mutate the BAC while it resides in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • trait
  • Once a preference becomes established, females choosing males with elaborate secondary sexual traits will produce sons that carry alleles for the trait and daughters that carry alleles for the preference, generating genetic coupling that will drive self-reinforcing coevolution of both trait and preference, due to the mating advantage of males with the trait, creating a Fisherian runaway sexy sons process. (wikipedia.org)
  • He extensively explores this apparently sex-limited trait from a genetic perspective in this ground-breaking 50 page paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically relevant
  • We're hoping to use PET imaging to provide a clinically relevant biomarker, which would be relevant beyond genetic forms of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This strain improves upon existing models and allows in vivo functional assessments of a clinically relevant mutation involved in FTD. (sciencemag.org)
  • symptoms
  • These conventional models exhibit the classic motor and behavioural symptoms of the disease, which is why they have been widely adopted by the Parkinson's field, but the sledgehammer approach to inducing the disease means the cells die-the guitar is smashed-before any of the subtle changes in the tune can be measured. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Evidence is presented for the effects of genetic background on PPI (and other symptoms/phenotypes), as well as for environmental influences on genetic predisposition to enhanced apomorphine (mixed dopamine receptor agonist) effects. (scirp.org)
  • dopamine
  • Until now, the best available experimental models of the disease were based on flooding the brain with alpha-synuclein-a protein in the brain that, when it accumulates abnormally into clumps, is linked to Parkinson's-or using neurotoxins to destroy dopamine-producing cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The lab's recent work to characterize the VKI model shows it is critically important in dopamine neurotransmission, where it regulates the activity-dependent recycling of the dopamine transporter. (medicalxpress.com)
  • simulations
  • Forward simulations, in contrast, model the evolution of all the sequences in a population exactly, forward in time and generation by generation. (genetics.org)
  • However, despite their inefficiency, forward simulations are necessary if we wish to simulate data sets under complex and realistic biological scenarios ( e.g. , natural selection at multiple linked loci) that are difficult to model accurately using the coalescent. (genetics.org)
  • study
  • As an animal model, the mahoganoid mutant mice probably will not be useful to study spongiform encephalopathies like mad cow disease, Gunn believes, because rogue prions are not the cause of the mouse condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although the model shows no behavioral signs of Parkinson's, their new study found the changes in biology are clear and elegantly precise. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The origins of these mean field computational techniques can be traced to 1950 and 1954 with the work of Alan Turing on genetic type mutation-selection learning machines and the articles by Nils Aall Barricelli at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • Note that in some sense, the Pólya urn model is the "opposite" of the model of sampling without replacement, where every time a particular value is observed, it is less likely to be observed again, whereas in a Pólya urn model, an observed value is more likely to be observed again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note also that in a Pólya urn model, successive acts of measurement over time have less and less effect on future measurements, whereas in sampling without replacement, the opposite is true: After a certain number of measurements of a particular value, that value will never be seen again. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Cornell geneticist Teresa Gunn displays a mahoganoid mutant mouse, a possible animal model for brain disease in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some mice with a genetic mutation for mahogany-colored coats also develop spongiform degeneration of brain tissue, similar to mad cow disease. (innovations-report.com)
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  • The new model, developed by Farrer and his team could offer the precise tool that researchers have long hoped would deliver the impact of LRRK2 inhibitors and other disease-modifying drugs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The mutation causes an extremely rare genetic disease called cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome, which is characterized by abnormal development of the heart, facial features, skin and hair. (ucsf.edu)
  • They are transferred over to these genetic disease models by electroporation/transformation, transfection with a suitable virus or microinjection. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Because the cardiovascular anatomy of swine is similar to humans with regard to size, morphology, relative collateral arterial supply, and the presence of a well-developed vasa vasorum, the porcine coronary arterial model is the standard for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular devices. (sbir.gov)
  • Although there are several theories, the use of animal models has provided new insight on spike-and-wave discharge in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • System
  • Why Use the Yeast Genetic System? (slideserve.com)
  • The stable haploid state is essential for the utility of yeast as a genetic model system. (slideserve.com)
  • This term is restricted to autosomal traits, and should not be confused with sex-linked characteristics, which have to do with genetic differences on the sex chromosomes (see sex-determination system). (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • They also increase or decrease in the number of copies due to genetic drift. (genetics.org)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • Thus, the development of efficacious and safe stents continues to be confounded by the absence of asufficient large animal model of atherosclerosis. (sbir.gov)
  • time
  • The researchers again created neurons from cells donated by patients who carry a genetic mutation, this time in a critical signaling pathway that is necessary in every cell in the body. (ucsf.edu)
  • Russell began modeling as a part-time profession in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar models have been proposed for postcopulatory female preferences, such as the time at which females removed the male's sperm ampulla after mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • However, a marked deficiency in current pig models is that they do not present with metabolic syndrome and significant atherosclerosis, underlying conditions that can drastically alter restenosis and thrombosis. (sbir.gov)
  • The ideal pig model would be of manageable size and manifest both metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis at an early age. (sbir.gov)
  • whereas
  • We find that the recombination graph is generally a very good approximation for models with complete outcrossing, whereas, for models with self-fertilization, the approximation becomes slightly inexact for some combinations of selfing and recombination parameters. (genetics.org)
  • Type
  • The Australian geneticist Alex Fraser also published in 1957 a series of papers on the genetic type simulation of artificial selection of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • BACs are preferred for these kind of genetic studies because they accommodate much larger sequences without the risk of rearrangement, and are therefore more stable than other types of cloning vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systems
  • There is a need to model biological systems to aid in medication and drug delivery. (army.mil)
  • work
  • This model will set the stage for future work that investigates therapeutic approaches for restoring TREM2 function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Value
  • R. Fuss, D. G. Kaiser, and A. Zeno, "Value at risk, GARCH modelling and the forecasting of the hedge fund return volatility," Journal of Derivatives & Hedge Funds , vol. 13, pp. 2-25, 2007. (hindawi.com)