• organism
  • The relatively large size of the chick as a model organism allowed scientists during this time to make these significant observations without the help of a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death is the permanent termination of all biological functions which sustain an organism, and as such, is the end of its life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stochastic
  • Phylogenetics is an area that deals with the reconstruction and analysis of phylogenetic (evolutionary) trees and networks based on inherited characteristics Traditional population genetic models deal with alleles and genotypes, and are frequently stochastic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Units
  • The input stage of these models is not electrical, but rather has either pharmacological (chemical) concentration units, or physical units that characterize an external stimulus such as light, sound or other forms of physical pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Many of the included examples are characterised by highly complex, nonlinear, and supercomplex mechanisms, as it is being increasingly recognised that the result of such interactions may only be understood through a combination of mathematical, logical, physical/chemical, molecular and computational models. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • Travelling wave solutions of the space and time fractional models for non-linear blood flow in large vessels and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule dynamics defined in the sense of Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative via the first integral method are presented in this study. (aimsciences.org)
  • Population models are used to determine maximum harvest for agriculturists, to understand the dynamics of biological invasions, and for environmental conservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Work in this area dates back to the 19th century, and even as far as 1798 when Thomas Malthus formulated the first principle of population dynamics, which later became known as the Malthusian growth model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative
  • This unit builds on the foundation provided in Quantitative Methods in Biology to familiarise students with more advanced model building techniques including generalised linear, mixed and additive models, regression trees, bootstrapping methods, and non-linear regression. (edu.au)
  • neural
  • So far the physics engine Gepetto has been built and models of the neural connectome and a muscle cell have been created in the NeuroML format. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • He has presided the International Council for NMR in Biological Systems, the Indian Biophysical Society, the Indian Chemical Society and has served as the vice president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinguish
  • Although there are many commonalities, two aspects, in particular, distinguish biological networks from networks found in other fields: Firstly, in biological systems, copy numbers of many species are very low, which can give rise to significant relative fluctuations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some models in this category are black box models and distinguish only between two measured voltage levels: the presence of a spike (also known as "action potential") or a quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th century
  • Great advances in immunology and oncology continued to characterize the 20th century, for which we indebted to the chicken model. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In certain such cases, as the small copy number limit is reached, differential equation-based models break down since the assumption of continuous molecular concentrations is no longer valid. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such models contain key proteins involved in the process and can be used for prioritizing disease targets, for understanding of drug action and prevention of drug-induced toxicities, for analysis of patient predispositions and design of personalized therapies, for design of diagnostic biomarkers and analysis of patient molecular data. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It provides examples for analysis of gene expression microarrays to infer biological models, to find biomarkers for drug response and for applications of high-throughput molecular profiling technologies for personalized medicine. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Discrete
  • The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated by the analysis of stability and bifurcations of several discrete biological models using implementations of algebraic methods. (springer.com)
  • Allen L.J.: Some discrete-time SI, SIR, and SIS epidemic models. (springer.com)
  • order
  • A fractional complex transformation was applied to turn the fractional biological models into an equivalent integer order ordinary differential equation. (aimsciences.org)
  • We observed that introducing fractional order to the biological models changes the nature of the solution. (aimsciences.org)
  • The computerized text-mining algorithms are used to convert free grammar of human language into a set of formalized relationships between biological concepts in order to use this wealth of information. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The hierarchy of complexity levels of organization in the biosphere is also recognized in modern classifications of taxonomic ranks, such as: biological domain and biosphere, biological kingdom, Phylum, biological class, order, family, genus and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • unified theory
  • To accelerate the convergence to a unified theory, we list several models in each category, and where applicable, also references to supporting experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Many variant models have been studied, and interest has focused on proving computational universality for systems with a small number of membranes, for the purpose of solving NP-complete problems such as Boolean satisfiability (SAT) problems and the traveling salesman problem (TSP). (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Biological systems manifest many important examples of emergent properties in the complex interplay of components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various models of the spread of infections have been proposed and analyzed, and provide important results that may be applied to health policy decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • The probabilistic description taken by the models in this category was inspired from laboratory experiments involving either natural or pharmacological stimulation which exhibit variability in the resulting spike pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2010 At the technion he also heads the Enterprise Systems Modeling Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexity
  • this is because the latter is restricted primarily to simplified models of biological organization and organisms, as well as to only a general consideration of philosophical or semantic questions related to complexity in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • details
  • The various models in this category differ in the exact functional relationship between the input current and the output voltage and in the level of details. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Population models can track the fragile species and work and curb the decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, Lotka and Volterra formed the Lotka-Volterra model for competition that applies the logistic equation to two species illustrating competition, predation, and parasitism interactions between species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equilibrium model of island biogeography describes the number of species on an island as an equilibrium of immigration and extinction. (wikipedia.org)