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  • tyrosine kinase
  • 6,7 Before the commencement of circulation at 24 hours hpf, dorsal aorta expresses arterial endothelial markers, such as Ephrin-B2a, Notch5, and Gridlock, whereas the posterior cardinal vein expresses venous endothelial markers, such as EphB4 and Flt4 (fms-related tyrosine kinase 4). (ahajournals.org)
  • Spread-1 is a member of the Sprouty family of proteins and is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase in response to several growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • PI3K
  • Initial biological results are presented from a series of novel small molecule kinase inhibitors specifically designed to simultaneously target both MEK1 and PI3K. (aacrjournals.org)
  • endothelial
  • 3 In addition to mediating tumor-stromal interaction in a paracrine loop, 4 HGF/SF can induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 5 and promote angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3,4 In zebrafish, endothelial progenitor cells, called angioblasts, first become evident in 2 parallel stripes of lateral plate mesoderm by 12 to 14 hours postfertilization (hpf) ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, but is not expressed in either B or T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK2
  • Quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) systems, that can distinguish between active-form subtypes of mitogen-activated protein kinases (p44 and p42 MAP kinase, also called ERK1 and ERK2), were developed employing subtype-specific antibodies as a solid phase and an antibody specific for the phosphorylated region of MAP kinases as the detector. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Both ERK1 and ERK2 were activated immediately after stimulation, and the activity reached a maximum at 5-10 min. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MKP-3 also binds to ERK2 regardless of whether it is phosphorylated or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • HSF1 transactivates genes for many cytoprotective proteins involved in heat shock, DNA damage repair, and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes activated by HSF1 under heat shock conditions have been recently shown to differ from those activated in malignant cancer cells, and this cancer-specific HSF1 panel of genes has indicated poor prognosis in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a mesenchymally derived signal that acts through the c- met receptor as a morphogen and mitogen for epithelial cells 1 and hepatocytes 2 and is implicated in both developmental and adult processes. (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein is a ligand for the EGF receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the sole known ligand for death receptor 3, and it can also be recognized by decoy receptor 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is a ligand for receptor TNFRSF25 (death receptor 3) and TNFRSF6B (decoy receptor 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Constitutive
  • Substitution of a valine for a glutamic acid in the transmembrane domain can result in the constitutive dimerisation of this protein in the absence of a ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Oxidative stress, as a result of peroxisome proliferation, and DNA damage have been described in the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP [ 12 , 13 ] and the mouse Leydig tumor cell line MA-10 [ 14 ] exposed to high concentrations of DEHP (3 mM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • repress
  • Other experiments show that a single miRNA species may repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression often is relatively mild (much less than 2-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Merryman JI, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Werkmeister JR, Suter MM , Capen CC. Regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein production by a squamous carcinoma cell line in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • Cell Death and Disease (2018) 9:471 Page 2 of 13 apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), and murine molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of meta- protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38)/maternal bolic homeostasis by TGF-β signaling remain poorly 1,7,8 embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) , suggesting understood. (deepdyve.com)
  • Oncogenes play an important role in the regulation or synthesis of proteins linked to tumorigenic cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors
  • 18.Shu-Lan Qiu, Zhi-Cheng Xiao, Chun-Mei Piao, Ying-Lin Xian, Li-Xin Jia, Young-Fen Qi, Jiahuai Han, You-Yi Zhang, Jie Du: AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α2 Protects Against Liver Injury from Metastasized Tumors via Reduced Glucose Deprivation-Induced Oxidative Stress. (54doctor.net)
  • Taking their findings one step further, Gilmour and her team in 2017 demonstrated that a polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) they developed inhibited the growth of malignant tumors in mice and activated an immune response to those tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • 2.Zhicheng Xiao, Jing Zhang, Xiaogang Peng, Yanjun Dong, Lixin Jia, Huihua Li,Jie Du: The Notch γ-secretase inhibitor ameliorates kidney fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway activation. (54doctor.net)
  • 3.Aiping Lan, Yongfen Qi, Jie Du: Akt2 Mediates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition by Deactivating GSK3β/Snail Signaling Pathway in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells. (54doctor.net)
  • P53, combined with the Ras pathway, downregulate cyclin D1, a cyclin-dependent kinase if they are not stimulated by the presence of mitogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The encoded protein is a component of the interleukin-17 receptor signaling complex, and the interaction between this protein and IL-17R does not require the interleukin. (genecards.org)
  • Then interleukin receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is gathering to MyD88, followed by the interaction of myddosome which is composed of IRAK1, IRAK2, and/or IRAK3 [ 25 , 26 ]. (transpopmed.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of these domains, the N-terminal FERM domain and the Kinase domain form an auto-inhibitory interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction-thought to be the result of hydrophobic interactions between the two domains-prevents the activation of the Kinase domain, thereby preventing the signalling function of FAK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Release of this auto-inhibitory interaction has been shown to occur within focal adhesions-but not in the cytoplasm-and therefore is thought to require interaction with focal adhesion proteins, potentially as a result of mechanical forces transmitted through the focal adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Prior to its discovery in 2000, it was hypothesized that a protein existed which performed the functions subsequently shown for FGF23. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The expression of all investigated genes of the 3 D gel samples was elevated following millicurrent treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Structures and Properties of amino acids peptides and protein. (blogspot.com)
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • seed misfolding of PrPC inside a protein misfolding cyclic amplification reaction, and mutant PrP aggregates from transgenic mice were harmful to cultured neurons. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Tests in transgenic (Tg) mice support the contention that pathogenicity and Crenolanib infectivity are unbiased properties of misfolded PrP, due to different conformational state governments of the proteins. (stopvivisection.info)
  • When inoculated with Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) prions, however, Tg(PG14) mice accumulate a form of PG14 PrP that is easily distinguished from the one produced in spontaneously ill mice, because it is definitely highly PK-resistant, infectious in animal bioassay and able to seed PrPC misfolding inside a protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) reaction , . (stopvivisection.info)
  • These findings suggest that Smad proteins have class-specific impacts on obesity-associated metabolism by differentially regulating MPK38 activity in diet-induced obese mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • parameters by differentially regulating MPK38 activity in MPK38/MELK, an AMP‐activated protein kinase HFD-induced obese mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as in the organogenesis of liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • 12.M Yang, J-H Shao, Y-J Miao, W Cui, Y-F Qi, J-H Han, X Lin, J Du: Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization. (54doctor.net)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Capen CC. Effects of transforming growth factor  on parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated bone resorption and adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • Werkmeister JR, Rosol TJ, McCauley LK , Merryman JI, Horton JE, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein production by normal human keratinocytes in vitro is associated with a less differentiated phenotype. (dentisty.org)
  • Secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by bovine mammary cells in vitro . (dentisty.org)
  • This is not true for all growth factors, as some growth factors instead appear to cause mitogenic effects like growth indirectly by triggering other mitogens to be released, as evidenced by their lack of mitogenic activity in vitro, which VEGF has. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASK1
  • Smads2/3/4 increased, but Smad7 decreased, MPK38-mediated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1)/transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/p53 signaling. (deepdyve.com)
  • cellular
  • AMPK)-related kinase, has been shown to mediate var- ious cellular functions, including proliferation, spliceo- Results some assembly, gene expression, carcinogenesis, MPK38 kinase activity is increased by Smads2/3/4 but 9-13 apoptosis, and metabolism , although its exact phy- decreased by Smad7 siological functions still remain to be determined. (deepdyve.com)
  • v-Crk, a transforming oncoprotein from avian sarcoma viruses, is a fusion of viral "gag" protein with the SH2 and SH3 domains of cellular Crk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was identified as the transcript of the cellular Jun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytosolic kinase has been implicated in diverse cellular roles including cell locomotion, mitogen response and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • focal
  • FAK is a protein of 125 kD recruited as a participant in focal adhesion dynamics between cells, and has a role in motility and cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesion kinase has four defined regions, or tertiary structure domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • leucine
  • The leucine zipper is responsible for dimerization of the Jun and Fos protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobic residues additional to leucine also form the characteristic 3-4 repeat of α helices involved in "coiled-coil" interactions, and help contribute to the hydrophobic packing that drives dimerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) belongs to family of protein group which is able to dephosphorylate the residues of threonine/serine and tyrosine. (scitechnol.com)
  • These carbons are electrophiles that readily form covalent bonds by acting as acceptors in Michael reactions to form covalent bonds with exposed nucleophile sites, particularly thiol residues, in diverse proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is one predicted transmembrane domain in the protein sequence, a large neutrally charged region spanning residues 18-38. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Popular procedures are based on sequential centrifugation of detergent mind extracts to concentrate insoluble PrPSc molecules, and incubation with high concentrations of PK to break down PrPC and additional proteins, yielding 60C90% genuine PrP27-30 preparations. (stopvivisection.info)
  • IL-33 is an member of IL-1 cytokine family with ~32 kD and 18 kD molecules that in the past represented uncleaved and mature IL‑33 proteins, respectively [ 2 , 5 ], but now represent the bioactive and cleavage forms [ 6 , 7 ], respectively. (transpopmed.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released, type I interferons will activate molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: Cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, Destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and Less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitogenic
  • This kinase is a direct activator of MAP kinases in response to various environmental stresses or mitogenic stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proto-oncogenes are often involved in signal transduction and execution of mitogenic signals, usually through their protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, McCauley LK , Werkmeister J, Steinmeyer C, Swayne D, Capen CC. Studies on chicken polyclonal antipeptide antibodies specific for parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36). (dentisty.org)
  • B cells, on the other hand, divide to produce plasma cells when stimulated by mitogens, which then produce immunoglobulins, or antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • In humans, DHRS7B has been shown to physically interact with other proteins such as Mediator complex subunit 19 (MED19) and Brain and reproductive expressed-modulator protein (BRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Xu found that Dusp-6 gene is often under-expressed because of its promoter hypermethylation in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines [ 3 ]. (scitechnol.com)
  • We conclude that millicurrent stimulation of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes cultivated in a 3 D collagen gel and of osteochondral explants directly influences cell metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • McCauley LK , Rosol TJ, Merryman JI, Capen CC. Parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected lymphocytes. (dentisty.org)
  • The reaction inactivates or reduces the activity of various functionally important target proteins and is one mechanism by which cylopentenone PGs influence cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens act primarily by influencing a set of proteins which are involved in the restriction of progression through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1 checkpoint is controlled most directly by mitogens: further cell cycle progression does not need mitogens to continue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • While animals produce internal signals that can drive the cell cycle forward, external mitogens can cause it to progress without these signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous mitogens are used as controlled cell division is a normal and necessary part of the life cycle of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, are also capable of directly acting as mitogens, causing growth by directly inducing cell replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens are important in cancer research due to their effects on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens can contribute to this by causing the cell cycle to move forward when it should be prevented by some mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have functions that are not related to mitogenesis, but can be triggered by mitogens and do control the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bcr-Abl codes for a tyrosine kinase, which is constitutively active, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAK tyrosine kinase activity can be activated, which plays a key important early step in cell migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Mutations in FGF23 that render the protein resistant to proteolytic cleavage leads to increased activity of FGF23 and the renal phosphate loss found in the human disease autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulator
  • Consistent with this, Smads2/3/4 attenuated complex formation between MPK38 and its negative regulator thioredoxin (Trx), whereas Smad7 increased this complex formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, an opposite effect was observed on complex formation between MPK38 and its positive regulator zinc-finger-like protein 9 (ZPR9). (deepdyve.com)
  • The N-terminal SH2 domain of this protein functions as a positive regulator of transformation whereas the C-terminal SH3 domain functions as a negative regulator of transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zhang
  • 13.Yina Wu, Yulin Li, Congcong Zhang, Xi A, Yueli Wang, Wei Cui, Huihua Li, Jie Du: S100a8/a9 Released by CD11b+Gr1+ Neutrophils Activates Cardiac Fibroblasts to Initiate Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Inflammation and Injury. (54doctor.net)
  • motility
  • The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • During early apoptotic signaling in human endothelial cells, FAK is cleaved by caspase 3 at Asp-772, generating two FAK fragments of approximately 90 and 130 kDa in length. (wikipedia.org)