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  • cytoskeleton
  • The SPECC1L gene provides instructions for making a protein called cytospin-A. This protein interacts with components of the cytoskeleton and stabilizes microtubules, which is necessary for these fibers to regulate various cell processes including the movement of cells to their proper location (cell migration). (nih.gov)
  • Centrioles perform two distinct functions in eukaryotic cells: 1) they recruit pericentriolar material to form centrosomes that organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and position the mitotic spindle, and 2) they template cilia, cellular projections that perform a variety of critical sensory and motile functions. (oeaw.ac.at)
  • cell
  • Microtubules help cells maintain their shape, assist in the process of cell division , and are essential for the movement of cells (cell migration). (nih.gov)
  • cytoplasmic microtubules
  • Building on the earlier work by Sinnott and Bloch, who had shown that wounding the existing tracheary elements in a Coleus stem induced neighboring parenchyma cells to differentiate into new tracheary elements, Hepler showed that cytoplasmic microtubules were localized specifically in the cortical cytoplasm immediately over the bands of new secondary wall thickenings. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic spindle
  • Furthermore, microtubules are the major constituents of the mitotic spindle, which mediates the orderly segregation of the replicated chromosome sets into the two daughter cells during cell division. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Earlier work by Inoué (1952) had shown that when cells are exposed to cold temperatures the mitotic spindle-later shown to be composed of microtubules-disappears. (rupress.org)
  • Microtubules are also the main component of the mitotic spindle, and they are therefore essential for cell division. (pnas.org)
  • cilia
  • The axoneme of primary cilia typically has a ring of nine outer microtubule doublets (called a 9+0 axoneme), and the axoneme of a motile cilium has two central microtubule singlets in addition to the nine outer doublets (called a 9+2 axoneme). (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • In earlier work, Frey's group had shown that the density of molecular motors attached to the filaments has an impact on whether the microtubule grows or shrinks, and that their effect depends on the length of the filament concerned. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Microtubules can also morph into other forms such as helical filaments, which are observed in protist organisms like foraminifera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinesins move along microtubule (MT) filaments, and are powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (thus kinesins are ATPases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The common methods in nanobiomechanics are summarized below: Atomic force microscope Optical tweezers Magnetic twisting cytometry bone and its hierarchical constituents such as single collagen fibrils single living cells actin filaments and microtubules synthetic peptide nanotubes In addition to experimental aspect, research has been expanding through computational methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • depolymerization
  • Experiments performed at about the same time showed that treatment of A. nucleofilum cells with agents that cause microtubule depolymerization-mainly, hydrostatic pressure and colchicine treatment-gave similar results (Tilney et al. (rupress.org)
  • This cap provides both stability and protection to the microtubule (-) end from enzymes that could lead to its depolymerization, while also inhibiting (-) end growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is partly due to phosphorylation of XMAP215, which makes catastrophes (rapid depolymerization of microtubules) more likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth and shrinkage
  • Which of these becomes dominant depends on the relative concentrations of the tubulins and the motor proteins: In a certain concentration range the dynamic equilibrium between growth and shrinkage of the microtubules operates as it would if resources were not limiting. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Dynamically unstable microtubules undergo alternating periods of growth and shrinkage, with rapid transitions between these states. (pnas.org)
  • regulate
  • Together with Guoqiang Gu, Ph.D., associate professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, and other Vanderbilt laboratories, the investigators demonstrated using multiple systems and technologies that microtubules negatively regulate insulin secretion in beta cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The insulin granules 'walk' randomly on the microtubule mesh, and the microtubules regulate the number of granules at the cell periphery to prevent over-secretion," Kaverina said. (eurekalert.org)
  • subunit
  • In this model, the subunit disassociation rate from a microtubule tip is independent of free subunit concentration. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Because both the association and the dissociation rates increase at higher free subunit concentrations, we find that the kinetics of microtubule assembly are an order-of-magnitude higher than currently estimated in the literature. (dur.ac.uk)
  • kinesin
  • Gilbert et al reports that myosin and kinesin are binary switching in the microtubules. (bio.net)
  • The data curve supports this with a ossilation of 50/50 hook up of the myosin/kinesin system to the microtubules. (bio.net)
  • It has been previously known that kinesin move cargo towards the positive (+) end of a microtubule, also known as anterograde transport/orthograde transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAP2
  • A single study has suggested that MAP2 and tau bind on the inner microtubule surface on the same site in tubulin monomers as the drug Taxol, which is used in treating cancer, but this study has not been confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like MAP2 and tau, MAP4 is responsible for stabilization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • microfilaments
  • Hepler described his realization of the influence a review he and Palevitz wrote on microtubules and microfilaments "to introduce new thoughts and promising avenues for future research" had with his characteristic self-deprecating sense of humor: "I became aware that the review was being read widely one summer (1979) while working in the library at the Marine Biological Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • meaning, the heads only binds to the microtubule in one orientation, while ATP binding gives each step its direction through a process known as neck linker zippering. (wikipedia.org)
  • anticancer drugs
  • Beyond their importance to our understanding of basic cell biology, microtubules are a major target for anticancer drugs, such as Taxol, which can prevent the transition from growing to shrinking nucleotide states or vice versa. (lbl.gov)
  • Together, our studies lead to a major revision of kinetic estimates of microtubule assembly, and provide a new perspective on how microtubule-associate proteins and anticancer drugs might control assembly. (dur.ac.uk)
  • mammalian
  • The new results show that the extra load is lightened in mammalian cells at late anaphase, when microtubules were released both individually and in clusters. (rupress.org)
  • The addition of the DAD to mammalian cells induces actin filament formation, stabilises microtubules, and activates serum-response mediated transcription. (wikipedia.org)