• Atom
  • Therefore, electron microscopy in conjunction with differential heavy atom DNA labeling could be used to directly image the DNA in order to determine its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, the interaction between the electron wave in different atom columns leads to Bragg diffraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-rays are scattered by the electron cloud of the atom and hence the scattering amplitude of X-rays increases with the atomic number, Z {\displaystyle Z} , of the atoms in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relevant distribution, ρ ( r ) {\displaystyle \rho (r)} is the potential distribution of the atom, and the electron form factor is the Fourier transform of this. (wikipedia.org)
  • atoms
  • Crewe and coworkers at the University of Chicago developed the cold field emission electron source and built a STEM able to visualize single heavy atoms on thin carbon substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • To circumvent this problem, the DNA bases can be labeled with heavier atoms (higher Z). Each nucleotide is tagged with a characteristic heavy label, so that they can be distinguished in the transmission electron micrograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectroscopic
  • CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) F. Hofer, P. Warbichler and W. Grogger, Imaging of nanometer-sized precipitates in solids by electron spectroscopic imaging, Ultramicroscopy, Volume 59, Issues 1-4, July 1995, Pages 15-31. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging
  • Alternate modes of use allow for the TEM to observe modulations in chemical identity, crystal orientation, electronic structure and sample induced electron phase shift as well as the regular absorption based imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Directly interpretable Z-contrast imaging makes STEM imaging with a high-angle detector an appealing technique in contrast to conventional high resolution electron microscopy, in which phase-contrast effects mean that atomic resolution images must be compared to simulations to aid interpretation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each imaging electron interacts independently with the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASIC-Based Event-Driven 2D Digital Electron Counter for TEM Imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • incident
  • Above the sample, the wave of an electron can be approximated as a plane wave incident on the sample surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atomic form factor depends on the type of scattering, which in turn depends on the nature of the incident radiation, typically X-ray, electron or neutron. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenomenon is commonly known as wave-particle duality, which states that a particle of matter (in this case the incident electron) can be described as a wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that the incident electrons feel the influence of both the positively charged atomic nuclei and the surrounding electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnification
  • The research team worked on lens design and CRO column placement, to optimize parameters to construct better CROs, and make electron optical components to generate low magnification (nearly 1:1) images. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the magnification achievable was lower than with light microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • differential
  • At lower magnifications TEM image contrast is due to differential absorption of electrons by the material due to differences in composition or thickness of the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoscale
  • Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). (osti.gov)
  • Possible applications of nano-peapods include nanoscale lasers, single electron transistors, spin-qubit arrays for quantum computing, nanopipettes, and data storage devices thanks to the memory effects and superconductivity of nano-peapods. (wikipedia.org)
  • displaystyle
  • For X-ray scattering, ρ ( r ) {\displaystyle \rho (r)} in the above equation is the electron charge density about the nucleus, and the form factor the Fourier transform of this quantity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here h {\displaystyle h} is Planck's constant and p {\displaystyle p} the relativistic momentum of the electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrons are accelerated in an electric potential U {\displaystyle U} to the desired velocity: v = 2 e U m 0 {\displaystyle v={\sqrt {\frac {2eU}{m_{0}}}}} m 0 {\displaystyle m_{0}} is the mass of the electron, and e {\displaystyle e} is the elementary charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystalline
  • Pole figures and electron back-scatter diffraction orientation maps indicate that both layers in the as-deposited state are single-crystalline with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. (diva-portal.org)
  • The single-crystalline structure of the TiN layer is stable up to annealing temperatures of 1000 degrees C as shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. (diva-portal.org)
  • As a result of the interaction with a crystalline sample, the electron exit wave right below the sample φe(x,u) as a function of the spatial coordinate x is a superposition of a plane wave and a multitude of diffracted beams with different in plane spatial frequencies u (spatial frequencies correspond to scattering angles, or distances of rays from the optical axis in a diffraction plane). (wikipedia.org)
  • The periodic structure of a crystalline solid acts as a diffraction grating, scattering the electrons in a predictable manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Preferential propagation of pores during the formation of porous silicon: A transmission electron microscopy study. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study, we have evaluated the resolution of images obtained at 60 kV by TEM performed with a monochromated electron source. (osti.gov)
  • Negative staining transmission electron microscopy has also been successfully employed for study and identification of aqueous lipid aggregates like lamellar liposomes (le), inverted spherical micelles (M) and inverted hexagonal HII cylindrical (H) phases (see figure above). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study shows that electrons indeed pass to the neck and bud region of the nanobud system. (wikipedia.org)
  • sample
  • However, a large part of the structure information of the sample is contained in the phase of the electron wave. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of the electron wave with the crystallographic structure of the sample is complex, but a qualitative idea of the interaction can readily be obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • equation
  • In 1926 Hans Busch published work extending this theory and showed that the lens maker's equation could, with appropriate assumptions, be applied to electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is now recognized as a crucial tool in materials science. (valorebooks.com)
  • Volume I concentrates on the newly developed concepts and methods which are making TEM a powerful and indispensible tool in materials science.Zhang, Xiao-Feng is the author of 'Progress in Transmission Electron Microscopy 1 Concepts and Techniques' with ISBN 9783540676805 and ISBN 3540676805. (valorebooks.com)
  • For a low accelerating voltage, linear information transfer, which determines the resolution for observation of single-layered materials, is largely limited by defocus spread, which improves when a narrow energy spread is used in the electron source. (osti.gov)
  • however
  • However, at the time the results were inferior to those of transmission electron microscopy, and von Ardenne only spent two years working on the problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in 2012 a collaboration between scientists at Harvard University, the University of New Hampshire and ZS Genetics demonstrated the ability to read long sequences of DNA using the technique, however transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing technology is still far from being commercially available. (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • R.A. Bonham and M. Fink, High Energy Electron Scattering (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1983). (springer.com)
  • Adjusting the slit to only allow electrons which have lost a specific amount of energy can be used to obtain elementally sensitive images. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • Owing to the ease with which fullerenes can encapsulate or be doped with other molecules and the transparency of nanotubes to electron beams, carbon peapods can also serve as nano-scale test tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to the large number of highly curved fullerene surfaces acting as electron emission sites on conductive carbon nanotubes, nanobuds possess advantageous field electron emission characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reported test measurements show (macroscopic) field thresholds of about 0.65 V/μm, (non-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes have a macroscopic field threshold for field electron emission ~2 V/μm) and a much higher current density as compared with that of the corresponding pure single-walled carbon nanotubes. (wikipedia.org)