Loading...
  • Neurons
  • PPARgamma was distributed in the neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the adipocytes at the epineurium of the sciatic nerve in naive mice. (curehunter.com)
  • To better understand the role of Ca 2+ -CaM in neuronal migration, we investigated mouse precerebellar neurons (PCNs), which undergo stereotyped, long-distance migration to reach their final position in the developing hindbrain. (biologists.org)
  • This study focused on exploring the effects of PREGS on the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of adult male mice. (nih.gov)
  • acute
  • In this study, the effects of acute and chronic administration of nicotine on DOI-induced head twitch response (HTR) in male albino ICR mice were evaluated. (curehunter.com)
  • Antidepressant-like effect of acute GLYX-13 treatment in mice. (nih.gov)
  • c) Acute GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) treatment had no effects on locomotor activity, reflected by the line crossing (left) and rearing (right) in mice. (nih.gov)
  • The second set of experiments was to investigate whether 21-day CUMS alters VGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the hippocampus of mice and to determine whether acute treatment of GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) reverses the depressive-like behaviors induced by CUMS in mice (Figure 2a). (nih.gov)
  • Humans
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant mice
  • The bacterial burdens in the spleen, liver, and lungs were determined at day 5 (or at autopsy for ccr2−/− mice that died on day 4), and mutant mice had between 3-7 log-fold higher listerial titers than wild-type animals in all tissues (Fig. 3), confirming that CCR2 is required for listerial clearance. (nih.gov)
  • At autopsy, livers and spleens from wild-type animals were of normal color but enlarged, while livers and spleens from mutant mice were of normal size but appeared mottled and off color. (nih.gov)
  • c) Flow cytometry analysis of femoral bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (+/+) and mutant (−/−) mice. (nih.gov)
  • The rectangle highlights a CCR2-staining cell population present in wild-type but not mutant mice. (nih.gov)
  • Genotypic analysis of such intercrosses indicated that wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/−), and mutant (−/−) mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio (Fig. 1 b). (nih.gov)
  • serum
  • The basidiolipids, though with differential effectiveness of the BI-components, stimulated the expression of serum immune globulins in mice that recognized co-injected antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a keyhole-limpet hemocyanin-ganglioside Gfpt1 conjugate (KLH-Gfpt1), respectively. (naver.com)
  • litters
  • Heterozygous mice were intercrossed under pathogen-free conditions, and resulting litters were healthy and normal in size. (nih.gov)
  • effects
  • The antinociceptive effects of L-arginine in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice were significantly antagonized by s.c. administration of naltrindole, a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-mediated neuropeptide VGF in the hippocampus of mice is involved in the rapid onset antidepressant-like effects of GLYX-13. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of Monophosphoryllipid-A on the Immunization of Mice with Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin- and Muramyldipeptide-Ganglioside Gfpt1 Conjugates. (naver.com)
  • rats
  • It has been proposed that twitches of the head in mice or twitches of head and shoulders in rats following administration of the selective 5HT(2A/C) agonist DOI (1-)2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane, can serve as an animal model of tics in TS. (curehunter.com)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Inflammatory cells were infiltrated into the tracheal smooth muscle layer in the sidestream smoke exposure mice and tracheal mucous gland hypertrophy could also be observed in these mice, while mice in the fresh air group had no infiltrated inflammatory cells or tracheal mucous gland hypertrophy. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • In this study, we used mice lacking the SR-A (SRKO) to investigate the role of SR-A in acquired immunity using a viable bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection model. (nih.gov)
  • After BCG infection, SRKO mice are able to recruit Mphi to sites of granuloma formation where they become activated and restrict BCG replication. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, these mice were unable to clear infection by the intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Listerial titers in liver, spleen, and lung were determined from mice killed 5 d after infection or at autopsy for mice that died after 4 d. (nih.gov)
  • After 5 d, when macrophages are essential for control of L. monocytogenes infection, all ccr2+/+ mice appeared active and healthy. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, 33% of ccr2−/− mice died 4 d after infection and the remainder were moribund at 5 d. (nih.gov)
  • wild-type
  • Production of TNF-α after LPS challenge of SRKO and wild-type (129) mice. (nih.gov)
  • We reasoned that this molecule was a candidate mediator of the difference in mortality observed between wild-type and SRKO mice. (nih.gov)
  • Significantly higher levels of TNF-α were present in the plasma of SRKO mice relative to wild-type mice (Fig. 5 A). To confirm that the measured differences in this cytokine were not confounded by differences in response to viable microorganisms, mice were injected with inactivated C. parvum and subsequently challenged with LPS. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type (open bars) and ccr2−/− (black bars) mice were injected intravenously with 2,500 CFU of L. monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Values represent mean ± SEM of 15 wild-type or ccr2−/− mice. (nih.gov)
  • Histopathological analyses revealed minimal inflammatory foci comprised of macrophages, neutrophils, and individual necrotic hepatocytes in the livers of wild-type mice (Fig. 4, a and c). (nih.gov)
  • The 9-kb fragment indicates a wild-type 129/Sv allele, the 5-kb fragment indicates a wild type ICR allele, and the 3-kb fragment is specific for the recombined allele. (nih.gov)
  • Nrf2 (-/-) mice were shown to have more NF-kappaB activation, inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production, and ICAM-1 expression in brain after TBI compared with their wild-type Nrf2 (+/+) counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • 05 versus injured wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • Activity
  • In addition, we show that an antibody which blocks TNF-alpha activity reduces LPS-induced mortality in these mice. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary fibre and the mouse colon: its influence on luminal pH, reducing activity, bile acid binding and cell proliferation. (athabascau.ca)
  • experiments
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly increased
  • Four weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increased the mouse airway contractile response to carbachol, endothelin-1 and potassium. (nih.gov)
  • e) Quantitative analysis showed that the number of ICAM-1positive vessels in brain was significantly increased after TBI and was greaterin Nrf2 (−/−) mice than in Nrf2 (+/+) mice. (nih.gov)
  • At the 24 hours after TBI, the number of ICAM-1 positivevessels was significantly increased in the cortex of both Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2(−/−) mice. (nih.gov)
  • vector
  • Cultured mouse DRG explants were infected with the adenoviral vector AdCMVNgCAM. (nih.gov)
  • β-Galactosidase [β-Gal (vector control)], Gα 13 , Gα q , and Gα s were expressed in isolated mouse pancreatic acini by means of recombinant adenoviruses with overnight incubation. (nih.gov)
  • Female
  • The effect of dietary beta carotene on colon carcinogenesis Induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine «DMH) CAS: 540-73-81 was studied in female inbred Swiss Webster (ICR) mice. (athabascau.ca)
  • Female, Swiss mice were fed semi-synthetic diets for 33 days. (athabascau.ca)
  • The influence of dietary selenium and cabbage on the formation of colon tumors in female Swiss mice treated with 1,2.dimethylhydrazine [(DMH) CAS: 540-73-was reported. (athabascau.ca)
  • response
  • Nicotine attenuates DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice: implications for Tourette syndrome. (curehunter.com)
  • Although s.c. administration of L-arginine produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the tail-flick response in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, the antinociceptive response was greater in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, infected mice lacking the SR-A are more susceptible to endotoxic shock and produce more TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 in response to LPS. (nih.gov)
  • inflammatory
  • The present study was designed to investigate if the Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone suppress airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of sidestream smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • model
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • weeks
  • Mice were repeatedly exposed to smoke from four cigarettes each day for four weeks. (nih.gov)
  • tissue
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tracheal tissue derived from six groups of mice: fresh air group, passive smoke-exposed group, dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups and GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of ICAM-1 in the cortex of sham and injured Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice.Immunohistochemical staining for ICAM-1 was performed in the cortex tissue sections of Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice 24 hoursafter TBI. (nih.gov)
  • investigate
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • greater
  • The brain-to-blood ratios in normal ICR mice were 2.8 or greater at the times studied, and the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio at 60 min after injection was 20:1. (elsevier.com)
  • However
  • However, neither beta-funaltrexamine, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, nor nor-binaltorphimin ++, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, significantly affected the antinociceptive effect of L-arginine in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • control
  • The explants were incubated in the presence of control mouse IgG (a and d), monoclonal anti-axonin-1 IgG X7C11 (b and e) and the monoclonal mouse anti-NgCAM IgG 12-I-4E-311 (c and f). (nih.gov)
  • mean
  • Results at each time point represent the mean concentration ± SD of a group of five mice. (nih.gov)
  • results
  • These results suggest that L-arginine produces a marked antinociceptive effect in diabetic mice through the activation of delta-opioid receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similar results were obtained by treating the mice with two doses of GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg). (nih.gov)
  • study
  • During the 18th century Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier both used mice to study respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Burns, HD , Dannals, RF & Langstrom, B 1984, ' (3-N-[11C]methyl)spiperone, a ligand binding to dopamine receptors: Radiochemical synthesis and biodistribution studies in mice ' Journal of Nuclear Medicine , vol 25, no. 11, pp. 1222-1227. (elsevier.com)
  • shown
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to activate RhoA and Rac1, as well as reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and, thereby, modify acinar morphology and amylase secretion in mouse pancreatic acini. (nih.gov)
  • activation
  • Together, these findings indicate that, in mouse pancreatic acini, Galpha(13) links CCK stimulation to the activation of RhoA, whereas both Galpha(13) and Galpha(q) link CCK stimulation to the activation of Rac1. (nih.gov)
  • present
  • S is a polymorphic SpeI site present in ICR and absent in 129/Sv DNA. (nih.gov)
  • recombinant
  • β-Galactosidase [β-Gal (vector control)], Gα 13 , Gα q , and Gα s were expressed in isolated mouse pancreatic acini by means of recombinant adenoviruses with overnight incubation. (nih.gov)
  • rodent
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • BALB
  • Although IMQ-induced expression shifts mirrored psoriasis, responses in BALB/c, 129/SvJ, DBA, and MOLF mice were more consistent with other human skin conditions (e.g., wounds or infections). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We devised a pulmonary infection model in neutropenic BALB/c mice, used an antibacterial regimen to prevent confounding sepsis, and optimized PMN induction, purifications, and dose. (stanford.edu)
  • 1998
  • The consumption of ethanol represents a preferred source of calories for the C57BL/6 mouse (McMillen et al, 1998). (spotidoc.com)
  • Drug
  • The present study was designed to investigate if the Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone suppress airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of sidestream smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • responses
  • Despite the difference in genetic variation between ICR stocks, we suggested that discrepancies in biological responses to external stimuli would be minimal due to genetic heterogeneity among stocks, rare homozygous mutants and scarcity of the regional mutations affecting genetic expression. (academiapublishing.org)
  • Models
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Together, these findings indicate that, in mouse pancreatic acini, Galpha(13) links CCK stimulation to the activation of RhoA, whereas both Galpha(13) and Galpha(q) link CCK stimulation to the activation of Rac1. (nih.gov)
  • stocks
  • A key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature is the Laboratory Registration Code or Laboratory code, which is a code of usually three to four letters (first letter uppercase, followed by all lowercase) that identifies a particular institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced, and may hold stocks of, a mouse or rat strain. (jax.org)
  • We investigated whether outbred Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice stocks can be classified using SNP variation, and determined the specific genetic variation in the Korl: ICR strain. (academiapublishing.org)
  • protein
  • J:106102 Carter AM, Nygard K, Mazzuca DM, Han VK, The expression of insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding protein mRNAs in mouse placenta. (jax.org)
  • means
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • days
  • Mice were given 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide every 4 days and a gentamicin-vancomycin-clindamycin-imipenem regimen daily beginning 4 days before intranasal challenge with 5 × 10(5) Aspergillus conidia. (stanford.edu)
  • database
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • techniques
  • As proof of concept, a candidate gene called Galanin receptor 2 (Galr2) in the Chr 11 QTL was demonstrated to be a pro-proliferative regulator of NPCs using in vitro techniques manipulating Galr2 expression and Galr2 knockout mice. (ubc.ca)
  • formation
  • Furthermore, TPA promotion alone induced papilloma formation in ML.ΔβRII mice, which suggests an initiating role for ΔβRII in skin carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • skin
  • In C57BL/6 mice selfgrooming and allo-grooming is observed (Militzer and Wecker, 1986) Drugs Susceptible to skin ulceration by DMBA (Thomas et al, 1973). (spotidoc.com)
  • Similar
  • Note: a few historical examples exist of similar mouse and rat strain designations and these are allowed to stand, with their substrain designations identifying them as unique). (jax.org)
  • multiple
  • J:47668 Caspary T, Cleary MA, Baker CC, Guan XJ, Tilghman SM, Multiple mechanisms regulate imprinting of the mouse distal chromosome 7 gene cluster. (jax.org)
  • group
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tracheal tissue derived from six groups of mice: fresh air group, passive smoke-exposed group, dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups and GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups. (nih.gov)