• Neurons
  • PPARgamma was distributed in the neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the adipocytes at the epineurium of the sciatic nerve in naive mice. (curehunter.com)
  • To better understand the role of Ca 2+ -CaM in neuronal migration, we investigated mouse precerebellar neurons (PCNs), which undergo stereotyped, long-distance migration to reach their final position in the developing hindbrain. (biologists.org)
  • This study focused on exploring the effects of PREGS on the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of adult male mice. (nih.gov)
  • genetics
  • In the early part of the 20th century Clarence Cook Little, a Harvard undergraduate was conducting studies on mouse genetics in the laboratory of William Ernest Castle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Models
  • In this paper we present descriptions and examples of rabbit and mouse eye models of HSV-1 latency, reactivation, and recurrent diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The key features, advantages, and disadvantages of the mouse and rabbit models in relation to the study of ocular HSV-1 are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • mutant mice
  • The bacterial burdens in the spleen, liver, and lungs were determined at day 5 (or at autopsy for ccr2−/− mice that died on day 4), and mutant mice had between 3-7 log-fold higher listerial titers than wild-type animals in all tissues (Fig. 3), confirming that CCR2 is required for listerial clearance. (nih.gov)
  • At autopsy, livers and spleens from wild-type animals were of normal color but enlarged, while livers and spleens from mutant mice were of normal size but appeared mottled and off color. (nih.gov)
  • c) Flow cytometry analysis of femoral bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (+/+) and mutant (−/−) mice. (nih.gov)
  • The rectangle highlights a CCR2-staining cell population present in wild-type but not mutant mice. (nih.gov)
  • Genotypic analysis of such intercrosses indicated that wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/−), and mutant (−/−) mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio (Fig. 1 b). (nih.gov)
  • litters
  • Heterozygous mice were intercrossed under pathogen-free conditions, and resulting litters were healthy and normal in size. (nih.gov)
  • effects
  • The antinociceptive effects of L-arginine in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice were significantly antagonized by s.c. administration of naltrindole, a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-mediated neuropeptide VGF in the hippocampus of mice is involved in the rapid onset antidepressant-like effects of GLYX-13. (nih.gov)
  • c) Acute GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) treatment had no effects on locomotor activity, reflected by the line crossing (left) and rearing (right) in mice. (nih.gov)
  • We examined effects of test drugs in transporter uptake and release assays using rat brain synaptosomes, then assessed behavioral stimulant effects in mice. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • Inflammatory cells were infiltrated into the tracheal smooth muscle layer in the sidestream smoke exposure mice and tracheal mucous gland hypertrophy could also be observed in these mice, while mice in the fresh air group had no infiltrated inflammatory cells or tracheal mucous gland hypertrophy. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • CCR2-deficient mice cannot clear Listeria infection. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, these mice were unable to clear infection by the intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Listerial titers in liver, spleen, and lung were determined from mice killed 5 d after infection or at autopsy for mice that died after 4 d. (nih.gov)
  • After 5 d, when macrophages are essential for control of L. monocytogenes infection, all ccr2+/+ mice appeared active and healthy. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, 33% of ccr2−/− mice died 4 d after infection and the remainder were moribund at 5 d. (nih.gov)
  • experiments
  • The second set of experiments was to investigate whether 21-day CUMS alters VGF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the hippocampus of mice and to determine whether acute treatment of GLYX-13 (0.5, 5, and 10mg/kg, i.p.) reverses the depressive-like behaviors induced by CUMS in mice (Figure 2a). (nih.gov)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Nrf2 (-/-) mice were shown to have more NF-kappaB activation, inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production, and ICAM-1 expression in brain after TBI compared with their wild-type Nrf2 (+/+) counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of ICAM-1 in the cortex of sham and injured Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice.Immunohistochemical staining for ICAM-1 was performed in the cortex tissue sections of Nrf2 (+/+) and Nrf2 (−/−) mice 24 hoursafter TBI. (nih.gov)
  • Paternal Expression of a Novel Imprinted Gene, Peg12/Frat3, in the Mouse 7C Region Homologous to the Prader-Willi Syndrome Region Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (jove.com)
  • inflammatory
  • The present study was designed to investigate if the Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone suppress airway hyperreactivity in a mouse model of sidestream smoke exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Histopathological analyses revealed minimal inflammatory foci comprised of macrophages, neutrophils, and individual necrotic hepatocytes in the livers of wild-type mice (Fig. 4, a and c). (nih.gov)
  • tissue
  • Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tracheal tissue derived from six groups of mice: fresh air group, passive smoke-exposed group, dexamethasone (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups and GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg) plus passive smoke-exposed groups. (nih.gov)
  • greater
  • Although s.c. administration of L-arginine produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the tail-flick response in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, the antinociceptive response was greater in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The brain-to-blood ratios in normal ICR mice were 2.8 or greater at the times studied, and the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio at 60 min after injection was 20:1. (elsevier.com)
  • results
  • These results suggest that L-arginine produces a marked antinociceptive effect in diabetic mice through the activation of delta-opioid receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similar results were obtained by treating the mice with two doses of GW5074 (0.5 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg). (nih.gov)
  • However
  • However, neither beta-funaltrexamine, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, nor nor-binaltorphimin ++, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, significantly affected the antinociceptive effect of L-arginine in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • control
  • The explants were incubated in the presence of control mouse IgG (a and d), monoclonal anti-axonin-1 IgG X7C11 (b and e) and the monoclonal mouse anti-NgCAM IgG 12-I-4E-311 (c and f). (nih.gov)
  • studies
  • Burns, HD , Dannals, RF & Langstrom, B 1984, ' (3-N-[11C]methyl)spiperone, a ligand binding to dopamine receptors: Radiochemical synthesis and biodistribution studies in mice ' Journal of Nuclear Medicine , vol 25, no. 11, pp. 1222-1227. (elsevier.com)
  • Mice have been used in biomedical research since the 16th Century when William Harvey used them for his studies on reproduction and blood circulation and Robert Hooke used them to investigate the biological consequences of an increase in air pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • During the 18th century Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier both used mice to study respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar
  • The level of sensitivity of CCR2-deficient mice to L. monocytogenes was similar to that seen in mice lacking the 55-kD tumor necrosis factor receptor (29, 30) or the interferon-γ receptor (31). (nih.gov)
  • present
  • S is a polymorphic SpeI site present in ICR and absent in 129/Sv DNA. (nih.gov)