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  • infection
  • In the study presented here, a stable cell surface marker expressed on Th2 cells, T1/ST2, has been used to assess the distribution of CD4(+)T1/ST2(+) T cells in different organs of healer and nonhealer strains of mice during the course of L. major infection. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Since the majority of parasites persist at the local site of infection in nonhealing BALB/c mice, these results show that CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells are localized at the site of active infection and inflammation in this model. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • iNOS-producing inflammatory dendritic cells constitute the major infected cell type during the chronic Leishmania major infection phase of C57BL/6 resistant mice. (ac.be)
  • These cells are phenotypically similar to iNOS-producing inflammatory DC (iNOS-DC) observed in the mouse models of Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella melitensis infection. (ac.be)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that iNOS-DC represent a major class of Th1-regulated effector cell population and constitute the most frequent infected cell type during chronic Leishmania major infection phase of C57BL/6 resistant mice. (ac.be)
  • strains
  • however, CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells could be enriched from the lymphoid organs of infected nonhealer but riot from healer strains of mice. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of various genetically deficient mouse strains revealed the requirement of CCR2 expression for the recruitment of iNOS-DC in the draining lymph nodes, whereas their activation is strongly dependent on CD40, IL-12, IFN-gamma and MyD88 molecules with a partial contribution of TNF-alpha and TLR9. (ac.be)
  • cells
  • The highest frequency of CD4(+) T1/ST2(+)T cells was detected in the footpads of mice with nonhealing disease, showing that CD4(+) T1/ST2(+) T cells home to the footpads. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Immune control of Leishmania growth absolutely requires expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS/NOS2) and subsequent production of NO. Here, we show that CD11b+ CD11c+ Ly-6C+ MHC-II+ cells are the main iNOS-producing cells in the footpad lesion and in the draining lymph node of Leishmania major-infected C57BL/6 mice. (ac.be)
  • Tumor
  • In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a novel survivin-based vaccine by subcutaneous or intraperitoneum injection of BALB/c mice with murine fiber-induced MM tumor cells followed by vaccination with recombinant Fowlpox virus replicons encoding survivin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Whereas such lines would grow indefinitely in concanavalin A-induced mouse spleen cell supernatant, they would only grow for short periods (2 to 3 days) in the IL 2-containing supernatant of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated LBRM-33 tumor cells, or in IL 2 partially purified from spleen cell or LBRM-33 supernatants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • strain
  • BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of inbred strain that either has been altered, or naturally mutated so that it is different at a single locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dark coat make the mouse strain convenient for creating transgenic mice: it is crossed with a light-furred 129 mouse, and the desirable crosses can be easily identified by their mixed coat colors. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Envigo uses well-established techniques to successfully produce time mated rats, mice, hamsters, and rabbits. (envigo.com)
  • Time mated rats and mice are determined by observation of a vaginal plug. (envigo.com)
  • Mups can also function as signals between different species: mice display an instinctive fear response on the detection of Mups derived from predators such as cats and rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little and Castle collaborated closely with Abbie Lathrop who was a breeder of fancy mice and rats which she marketed to rodent hobbyists and keepers of exotic pets, and later began selling in large numbers to scientific researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They produce selectively bred and genetically engineered mice and rats for research use. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG1
  • IgG1, BALB/c) were produced to obtain insights into the microheterogeneity of the monoclonal antibody. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We demonstrate in mice that enzymatically active papain preferentially induces an IgG1 response and results in mast cell degranulation, both features typical of an allergic reaction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The more active of the two, 5.11A1, is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st Centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Mups are encoded by a cluster of genes, located adjacent to each other on a single stretch of DNA, that varies greatly in number between species: from at least 21 functional genes in mice to none in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice belong to the Euarchontoglires clade, which includes humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This close relationship, the associated high homology with humans, their ease of maintenance and handling, and their high reproduction rate, make mice particularly suitable models for human-oriented research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice are mammals of the Glires clade ( a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans along with lagomorphs, treeshrews, flying lemurs and other primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • 45% of A549 and H446 cells formed large clones that are able to generate subclones and subsequently give rise to xenograft tumors in the BALB/C-nude mouse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses of tumors from vaccinated mice showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltration, and real-time PCR demonstrated increased mRNA and protein levels of immunostimulatory cytokines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genetically
  • The molecule was genetically engineered by transfer of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from heavy and light chain variable region sequences of a monoclonal mouse anti-humanC28 [sic] antibody (5.11A1, Luhder et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • randomly
  • Six-week-old BALB/cJ mice were randomly allocated to consume an AIN-93 diet that contained no dietary fiber (fiber-free) or 5% (w/w) cellulose, pectin, KGM, and inulin for 3 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spleen
  • Analyses of survivin peptide-pulsed spleen and lymph node cells from vaccinated mice using ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed antigen-specific, interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antigen
  • Studies of monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse, rat, or human CD28 identified so-called "superagonistic" antibodies that could stimulate T cells without concurrent antigen-receptor stimulation (signal 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Analysis of the interaction between an alpha (1----6)dextran-specific mouse hybridoma antibody and dextran B512 by affinity electrophoresis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • experiments
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male
  • They have been demonstrated to promote aggression in male mice, and one specific Mup protein found in male mouse urine is sexually attractive to female mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, male BALB/c mice are aggressive and will fight other males if housed together. (wikipedia.org)
  • intraperitoneal
  • METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and challenged by intranasal administration with ovalbumin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Another aim of this investigation was to ascertain the action of the aforementioned pineal indoles on the enhanced lipid peroxidation brought about in the mouse kidney and liver by intraperitoneal administrations of carbon tetrachloride. (biomedsearch.com)
  • generations
  • From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progeny of these are now termed BALB/cJ and, as of 14 December 2006, were 221 generations from the founding stock. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Repeated exposure to low-dose diesel exhaust after allergen challenge exaggerates asthmatic responses in mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Repeated exposure to low-dose DE after ovalbumin challenge exaggerates allergic responses in mice, but effects are not prolonged with continuous DE exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genome
  • The mouse reference genome has at least 21 distinct Mup genes (with open reading frames), and a further 21 Mup pseudogenes (with reading frames disrupted by a nonsense mutation or an incomplete gene duplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the Mup gene cluster is one of the few parts of the mouse whole genome sequence with gaps remaining, and further genes may remain undiscovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodent
  • However, this occurred independently of the duplications in mice, meaning that both rodent species expanded their Mup gene families separately, but in parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • Group-housed B6 mice display barbering behavior, in which the dominant mouse in a cage selectively removes hair from its subordinate cage mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects
  • RESULTS: Repeated exposure of asthmatic mice to low-dose DE resulted in increased AHR and gene expression of several pro-asthmatic cytokines/chemokines, but these effects rapidly subsided with continued exposure to DE. (biomedsearch.com)
  • among
  • Indeed, the repetitive structure of these central Mup genes means they are likely to be unstable and may vary in number among wild mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Between 1979 and 1981, it was estimated that Mups are encoded by a gene family of between 15 and 35 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse and by an estimated 20 genes in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • As all the Class B genes are almost identical to each other, researchers have concluded that these duplications occurred very recently in mouse evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • true
  • Eicher E. M., Beamer W. G., Washburn L. L., and Whitten W. K. (1980) A cytogenetic investigation of inherited true hermaphroditism in BALB/cWt mice. (wikipedia.org)