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  • protein
  • Studies of the physical properties and phase behavior of lipids have shown that lipids can also play dynamic roles and can respond to changes in their environment by undergoing phase transitions, alterations in lipid- lipid and lipid-protein interactions, and by release or uptake of cations or protons. (springer.com)
  • Here, we identify a protein required for the biosynthesis of a unique archaeal lipid head group, calditol, whose production was considered to be restricted to a subset of archaeal thermoacidophiles. (pnas.org)
  • We show that deletion of this protein in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius prevents production of calditol-linked membrane lipids and, in turn, inhibits cell growth at extremely low pH. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally, we report the first unbiased binding of a lipid to a membrane protein. (gpugrid.net)
  • To address this, we study in vitro co-aggregation by incubating phospholipid model membranes with the Parkinson's disease-associated protein, α-synuclein, in monomeric form. (lu.se)
  • At higher lipid to protein ratios, additional vesicles adsorb along the fibrils. (lu.se)
  • While interactions between lipids and amyloid-protein are generally discussed within the perspective of different protein species adsorbing to and perturbing the lipid membrane, the current work reveals amyloid formation in the presence of lipids as a co-aggregation process. (lu.se)
  • The interaction leads to the formation of lipid-protein co-aggregates with distinct structure, dynamics and morphology compared to assemblies formed by either lipid or protein alone. (lu.se)
  • Among them, dystrophin strengthens the sarcolemma through protein-lipid interactions, and its absence due to gene mutations leads to the severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (cea.fr)
  • Most of the dystrophin protein consists of a central domain made of 24 spectrin-like coiled-coil repeats (R). Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the contrast variation technique, we specifically probed the structure of the three first consecutive repeats 1-3 (R1-3), a part of dystrophin known to physiologically interact with membrane lipids. (cea.fr)
  • SANS data for the protein/lipid complexes were obtained with contrast-matched bicelles under various phospholipid compositions to probe the role of electrostatic interactions. (cea.fr)
  • Kinases are classified into broad groups by the substrate they act upon: protein kinases, lipid kinases, carbohydrate kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • CF1 bound to membranes was found to be much more resistant to heat and cold than solubilised protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a membrane protein that is commonly known as Chlase (EC 3.1.1.14, CLH) and systematically known as chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Biological membranes contain a great variety of lipids with different hydrocarbon chains, polar groups, backbone structure (glycerol or sphin-gosine), type of chemical linkage (ester or ether) of the hydrocarbon chains to glycerol, as well as other less common variations. (springer.com)
  • Carreau VP, Dubaeq JP (1978) Adaptation of a macro-scale method to the micro-scale for fatty acid methyl transesterification of biological lipid extracts. (springer.com)
  • The study provides a new perspective on the active role of biological membranes may be a game-changer for our understanding of a great variety diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), along with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT), belongs among the most important techniques for investigating molecular diffusion in biological systems, including lipid membranes. (springer.com)
  • In biological membranes, their highly inhomogeneous structure ought to be considered as well. (springer.com)
  • behavior
  • In 1974, the effects of temperature on membrane behavior had led to the proposal of "clusters of lipids" in membranes and by 1975, data suggested that these clusters could be "quasicrystalline" regions within the more freely dispersed liquid crystalline lipid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Morré DJ, Panel C, Morré DM, Sandelius AS, Moreau P, Andersson B (1991) Cell-free transfer and sorting of membrane lipids in spinach. (springer.com)
  • Lipid is an important constituent of cell membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipid analyses have been done with whole cell membrane isolated by different methods. (hindawi.com)
  • It is shown that two directions in the differentiation of cambial derivatives, namely by the pathway of cell death (vessels and fibrous elements) and the preservation of a live protoplast (parenchyma cells), correlate with different fatty acid compositions of membrane lipids. (springer.com)
  • In the latter case, the share of unsaturated, mainly dienoic fatty acids, increases, which reflects a rise in the activity of cell membranes. (springer.com)
  • Functional roles of lipids are in fact many: They serve as regulatory agents in cell growth and adhesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both these cells synthesized iodolipids, as novel words of the chemical lipid language developed among cell membranes during the evolution of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membranes create enclosed compartments that are separate from the external environment, thus providing the cell with functionally specialized aqueous spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids can also be cleaved, or partially cleaved, from their chemical attachments in the cell membrane to form second messengers within the cell, and local hormones in the immediate vicinity of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid stored in the cell membrane, are probably the most well known group of these local hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • These uses include energy storage and creation of cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a Gram stain is performed, MTB either stains very weakly "Gram-positive" or does not retain dye as a result of the high lipid and mycolic acid content of its cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the epithelial cells of the bowel lack the ability to place fats into chylomicrons, lipids accumulate at the surface of the cell, crowding the functions that are necessary for proper absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthocyte (from the Greek word ἄκανθα acantha, meaning 'thorn'), in biology and medicine, refers to a form of red blood cell that has a spiked cell membrane, due to abnormal thorny projections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spur cells may refer synonymously to acanthocytes, or may refer in some sources to a specific subset of 'extreme acanthocytes' that have undergone splenic modification whereby additional cell membrane loss has blunted the spicules and the cells have become spherocytic ('spheroacanthocyte'), as seen in some patients with severe liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acanthocytes should be distinguished from echinocytes, which are also called 'burr cells', which although crenated are dissimilar in that they have multiple, small, projecting spiculations at regular intervals on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although more common in plasma membrane, lipid rafts have also been reported in other parts of the cell, such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phagosome is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around a microorganism or senescent cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • Since their proposal, the question of the existence and functional role of such cholesterol-mediated lipid assemblies has caused much controversy ( 13 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Recently, stimulated-emission-depletion (STED) nanoscopy ( 21 , 22 ), delivering subdiffraction resolution in live cells, provided direct evidence that certain lipids are transiently trapped in cholesterol-assisted molecular complexes ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lipid content of whole sperm decreases during epididymal maturation in boar, bull, ram, and rat [ 19 - 26 ], and the cholesterol content decreases in ram, rat, and hamster sperm [ 27 - 29 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Due to the rigid nature of the sterol group, cholesterol partitions preferentially into the lipid rafts where acyl chains of the lipids tend to be more rigid and in a less fluid state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is a lipid, cholesterol bears little resemblance to a phospholipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • The membrane metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have an essential role in intercellular biochemical communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These biochemical signals among cells, since contact and modification of membranes in multicellular organisms formed the bases of adaptation to terrestrial environments, and their alterations are important in the mechanism of apoptosis, carcinogenesis and degenerative diseases, as well as for understand some problems discussed regarding human evolution (as Aquatic ape hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • microdomains
  • However, membrane microdomains were postulated in the 1970s using biophysical approaches by Stier & Sackmann and Klausner & Karnovsky. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microdomains were attributed to the physical properties and organization of lipid mixtures by Stier & Sackmann and Israelachvili et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • compositions
  • Phospholipid molecular species and headgroup compositions were determined for sarcoplasmic reticular and microsomal membranes in two species of Sonoran desert cyprinid fish ( Agosia chrysogaster Girard and Notropis lutrensis Girard) trapped in an isolated pool of a desert stream. (biologists.org)
  • rafts
  • Studies have shown there is a difference in thickness of the lipid rafts and the surrounding membrane which results in hydrophobic mismatch at the boundary between the two phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other spontaneous events, such as curvature of the membrane and fusing of small rafts into larger rafts, can also minimize line tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • By one early definition of lipid rafts, lipid rafts differ from the rest of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • have hypothesized that the lipid rafts can be extracted from a plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • The different tools/approaches used for lipid analysis will also be discussed in relation to the studies to be carried out on lipid metabolism and function. (springer.com)
  • During periods with the highest rate of metabolism, the content of polyunsaturated, mainly trienoic fatty acids increase in membrane lipids. (springer.com)
  • Crawford (2010) in his chapter Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human brain evolution reported, with regard to the language of lipids, that the importance of the increased complexity of these lipids was brought about by aerobic metabolism, whereby the simple language of prokaryotes, with only a few words, was developed into a vocabulary of over 1,000 words of eukaryote cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • Nanoscale trapping of fluorescent lipid analogs in the plasma membrane of living cells is revealed and is consistent with the previous STED-FCS data. (pnas.org)
  • Studies using plasma membrane isolated from boar spermatozoa confirm earlier results with whole sperm that the amount of lipid decreases during epididymal maturation [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma membrane from the anterior head region of ram sperm is particularly rich in ethanolamine and choline phosphoglycerides [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Lagerholm BC, Andrade DM, Clausen MP, Eggeling C (2017) Convergence of lateral dynamic measurements in the plasma membrane of live cells from single particle tracking and STED-FCS. (springer.com)
  • Some material recycles to the plasma membrane directly from early endosomes, but most traffics via recycling endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • article{64f64a1e-359f-47da-855a-583a5890576b, abstract = {Amyloid deposits from several human diseases have been found to contain membrane lipids. (lu.se)
  • physiological
  • However, many questions remain regarding the synthesis and physiological role of some of the more complex archaeal lipids. (pnas.org)
  • chains
  • Another way of expressing this would be to say that the gel to liquid phase transition temperature increases with increasing number of carbons in the lipid alkane chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • All lipids have a characteristic temperature at which they undergo a transition (melt) from the gel to liquid phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • extraction
  • This chapter will briefly review the various biosynthetic pathways and will detail several aspects of the lipid analysis: lipid extraction, handling, separation, detection, identification, and data presentation. (springer.com)
  • lysosomes
  • Endosomes and lysosomes then fuse with the phagosome to contribute to the membrane, especially when the engulfed particle is very big, such as a parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • Longer tailed lipids have more area over which to interact, increasing the strength of this interaction and consequently decreasing the lipid mobility. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The results support previous STED nanoscopy measurements and suggest that, at least for nontreated cells, the transient interaction of a single lipid is confined to macromolecular dimensions. (pnas.org)
  • These PUFAs are incorporated into the phospholipidic membrane of all the cells of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Here, we present an optical single-molecule tracking approach that is capable of following the fast lipid movements with minimal invasion. (pnas.org)
  • interaction
  • Furthermore, interaction with cytoskeleton forms semipermeable barriers to membrane. (springer.com)
  • The extent of this interaction is in turn governed by how long the lipid tails are and how well they can pack together. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Hodgkin and Huxley's original model only employed two voltage-sensitive currents (Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse under certain conditions through the axolemma), the fast-acting sodium and the inward-rectifying potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This movement of ions down their concentration gradients subsequently generates an electric current sufficient to depolarize the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most well-studied and well-established function of viroporins is the permeabilization of the cell membrane to ions and small solutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The increase in the sugar carrier dolichyl phosphate may reflect an increased rate of glycosylation in the diseased brain, and the increase in the endogenous anti-oxidant ubiquinone an attempt to protect the brain from oxidative stress, for instance, induced by lipid peroxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma
  • In dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes containing radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine, subsequent addition of hemoglobin oxidized with H2O2 or Vitamin C extracted radiolabeled lipid with significantly greater efficiency than ferricyanide-treated hemoglobin, with enhanced extraction detectable at levels approaching physiological plasma oxidant concentrations. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ceramide is the basic structure of complex sphingolipids, which are present in the plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AP2 associates with the plasma membrane and is responsible for endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • a) the ABC transporter that allows the fatty acid transport across the peroxisomal membrane, b) enzymes carrying out the beta-oxidation pathway ACOX1, D-PBE, ACAA1 and SCPX, c) CROT, which transfers the carnitine to an acyl not completely oxidized, d) the thioesterases PTE1, PTE2, PTE2a and PTE2b, that regulates the acyl-CoA esterification and control the fatty acid shorting during the beta-oxidation. (216.92.14)
  • consists
  • Each disk consists of a solid sorbent sandwiched between two polyethersoulfone (PES) microporous membranes which are then compressed between two stainless steel rings which expose a sampling area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses
  • In non-enveloped viruses, the membrane permeability changes may be sufficient to induce cell lysis, thereby permitting the new virions to exit the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Crystallographic structural studies of a potassium channel have shown that, when a potential difference is introduced over the membrane, the associated electric field induces a conformational change in the potassium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Pentostam, Liposomal and lipid complex preparations of Amphotericin B, or paromomycin can be given. (wikipedia.org)
  • that is, they function as glycosyl carrier lipids involved in formation of complex branched polysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • possess
  • Zoospores of B. dendrobatidis, which are typically 3-5 µm in size, have an elongate-ovoidal body with a single, posterior flagellum (19-20 µm long), and possess a core area of ribosomes often with membrane-bound spheres of ribosomes within the main ribosomal mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • The drainage is usually indicative of a tympanic membrane perforation or a cholesteatoma, and the bacteriology differs from that of acute mastoiditis. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • often
  • Some zoospores appear to contain more lipid globules (this may have been a result of a plane-of-sectioning effect, because the globules were often lobed in the zoospores examined). (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • This red color is due primarily to the presence of bacterioruberin, a 50 carbon carotenoid pigment present within the membrane of H. salinarum. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • In particular, epsin-1 shows specificity for the membrane glycophospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, however not all ENTH domains bind to this molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • acts
  • The PES membrane acts as a semipermeable barrier between the sorbent and surrounding aquatic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • loss
  • Stainless steel rings, or other rigid inert material, are essential to prevent sorbent loss as the PES membranes are not able to be heat sealed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of membrane polarization can promote viral yields through a variety of mechanisms that operate throughout the viral life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • channel
  • 2012) TMEM16F forms a Ca2+-activated cation channel required for lipid scrambling in platelets during blood coagulation . (ibiology.org)
  • made
  • In erythrocytes made echinocytic with exogenous phospholipid, addition of hemoglobin oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or Vitamin C (conditions that result in the formation of significant quantities of choleglobin), but not ferricyanide (which produces predominantly methemoglobin), induced dose-dependent shape reversion to less echinocytic forms, consistent with extraction of phospholipids from the exofacial side of the membrane. (deepdyve.com)
  • high
  • Hemoglobin dimerization occurred at very low levels with H2O2 treatment, and even lower levels with Vitamin C treatment, and thus did not correlate to the high efficiency and consistent levels of lipid extraction observed with these treatments. (deepdyve.com)
  • classes
  • A proposed classification scheme sorts viroporins into four classes based on their topology and orientation in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)