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  • formation
  • Thus, evidence is accumulating that tomosyn acts as a negative regulator for the formation of the SNARE complex, thereby inhibiting various vesicle fusion events. (rupress.org)
  • Tomosyn inhibits SNARE-dependent synaptic vesicle fusion via both N-terminal WD-40 repeat domain-mediated oligomerization of the SNARE complex and C-terminal VLD-based competitive inhibition of SNARE complex formation, resulting in potent inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (rupress.org)
  • curvature
  • Although cholesterol has a negative spontaneous monolayer curvature, it is hard to estimate this effect on membrane curvature because the amount of curvature stress introduced by cholesterol is a function of the other phospholipids surrounding it ( Huang and Feigenson, 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • syntaxin
  • Synaptobrevin/VAMP and syntaxin are believed to be involved in vesicular transport in most, if not all cells, while SNAP25 is present almost exclusively in the brain, suggesting that a ubiquitously expressed homolog of SNAP25 exists to facilitate transport vesicle/target membrane fusion in other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • I also tried to identify the fusogens mediating yeast intercellular fusion using proteomic methods. (rice.edu)
  • Sec18p (NSF)-driven release of Sec17p (alpha-SNAP) can precede docking and fusion of yeast vacuoles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • hypothesis
  • The observation of the stalk structure supports the stalk hypothesis for membrane fusion and enables the measurement of these parameters experimentally. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results of this study support the hypothesis that host cell cholesterol acts at two stages in membrane fusion: (1) early, prior to fusion pore opening, and (2) late, during fusion pore expansion. (rupress.org)
  • lipid bilayers
  • Fusion of the lipid bilayers is induced by bringing an optically trapped bead in contact with the coverslip surface while observing the bead's thermal motion with microsecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution using a three-dimensional position detector. (utexas.edu)
  • Membrane fusion is the merger of two lipid bilayers into one continuous membrane. (illinois.edu)
  • glycoprotein
  • In combination, the approaches provide a significantly richer portrait of viral fusion glycoprotein structural variation and fusion activation as well as inhibition by neutralizing agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Here recent studies that highlight the utility of these complementary approaches will be reviewed with a focus on the well-characterized influenza virus hemagglutinin fusion glycoprotein system. (mdpi.com)
  • Membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a model system: correlation between fusion kinetics and structural changes in the envelope glycoprotein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Type C has only one glycoprotein: hemagglutinin-esterase fusion (HEF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, fusion processes are also crucial for the interactions between our cells and various pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. (nanowerk.com)
  • Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that cleavage of prM to M is a requirement for fusion activity of WNV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • molecular
  • Likewise, membrane fusion is the basic molecular process that controls the communication between cells via the secretion of hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. (nanowerk.com)
  • We have previously used single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics to study the molecular mechanism of influenza-virus envelope fusion. (harvard.edu)
  • fusogenic
  • In the first protocol, artificial fusogenic molecules (a liposome whose outer wall contains molecules that cause cell fusion) or ligands, synthesized by the collaborators from Coll ge de France, were incorporated into the lipid membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • Membrane fusion was subsequently induced by the local addition of ions that form a complex between two fusogenic molecules embedded in the opposing membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • pore
  • We were able to observe all fusion intermediates including transient fusion, formation of a stalk, hemifusion and the completion of a fusion pore. (utexas.edu)
  • Enrichment of HAS cells with cholesterol reduced the delay between triggering and lipid dye transfer between HAS cells and human red blood cells (RBC), indicating that cholesterol facilitates membrane lipid mixing prior to fusion pore opening. (rupress.org)
  • Increased cholesterol also increased aqueous content transfer between HAS cells and RBC over a broad range of HA expression levels, suggesting that cholesterol also favors fusion pore expansion. (rupress.org)
  • This interpretation was tested using both trans-cell dye diffusion and fusion pore conductivity measurements in cholesterol-enriched cells. (rupress.org)
  • induce
  • This situation reflects the absence of well-defined protocols by which one can induce fusion in a controlled manner and subsequently study its dynamics with high temporal resolution. (nanowerk.com)
  • occurs
  • Fusion of two opposing membranes occurs in a wide range of processes. (rice.edu)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homotypic vacuole fusion occurs in experimentally defined phases. (illinois.edu)
  • Regardless of the complexity of the system, fusion essentially occurs due to the interplay of various interfacial forces, namely hydration repulsion, hydrophobic attraction and van der Waals forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • Thus, evidence is accumulating that tomosyn acts as a negative regulator for the formation of the SNARE complex, thereby inhibiting various vesicle fusion events. (rupress.org)
  • Tomosyn inhibits SNARE-dependent synaptic vesicle fusion via both N-terminal WD-40 repeat domain-mediated oligomerization of the SNARE complex and C-terminal VLD-based competitive inhibition of SNARE complex formation, resulting in potent inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (rupress.org)
  • proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Rizo J and Sudhof TC (2012) The membrane fusion enigma: SNAREs, Sec1/munc18 proteins, and their accomplices, guilty as charged? (ed.ac.uk)
  • A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly. (embl.de)
  • These glutamate autoreceptors are able to inhibit synaptic fatigue in order to prevent the detrimental physiological consequences that could result from dysfunctional blood pressure regulation in the aorta (not true) When synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synapse that bind with post-synaptic membrane proteins to pass a signal, neurotransmitter re-uptake occurs to recycle neurotransmitters in the presynaptic cell in order to be released again. (wikipedia.org)
  • cargo
  • Although these results were consistent with the idea that syntaxin 3 must be restricted to the apical membrane to achieve maximal fidelity of apical cargo transport, it could not be excluded that the observed cargo mistargeting was an indirect effect of microtubule disruption. (rupress.org)
  • complexes
  • 2000.Genetic and morphological evidence indicate that Fis1p, but not Mdv1p, function is required for the proper assembly and distribution of Dnm1p-containing fission complexes on mitochondrial tubules.We propose that mitochondrial fission in yeast is a multi-step process, and that membrane-bound Fis1p is required for the proper assembly, membrane distribution, and function of Dnm1p-containing complexes during fission. (nih.gov)
  • Although these Dnm1p-containing complexes are thought to trigger constriction and fission, little is known about their composition and assembly, and molecules required for their membrane recruitment have not been isolated. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that mitochondrial fission in yeast is a multi-step process, and that membrane-bound Fis1p is required for the proper assembly, membrane distribution, and function of Dnm1p-containing complexes during fission. (nih.gov)
  • cell
  • Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) is a critical component of nerve cell membranes where electrical impulses carry thoughts, feelings, and instruction to run the body and mind. (sport-easy.com.ua)
  • Syntaxins 3 and 4 localize to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes, respectively, in virtually all epithelial cell types investigated to date. (rupress.org)
  • Jesse F. McClendon made substantial contributions in a variety of fields, including invertebrate zoology, nutrition, life processes of cell membranes, the importance of pH control, the role of iodine in human health, and specifically its relation to prevention of goiters. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMVs can be released upon cell lysis, or can acquire a second membrane from the Golgi apparatus and bud as extracellular enveloped virions (EEV). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This gene is a partner in a fusion gene with the BCR gene in the Philadelphia chromosome, a characteristic abnormality in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and rarely in some other leukemia forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • domain
  • For example, one would predict that mislocalization of the apical syntaxin 3 to the basolateral domain would allow the inappropriate fusion of apical transport vesicles with that domain and reduce the fidelity of polarized trafficking. (rupress.org)